Synonyms: an alcohol, alcohol, ROH
Alcohols are organic compounds in which the hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom. Alcohols are classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary, based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl group. The primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH; secondary alcohols are RR'CHOH; and tertiary ones are RR'R"COH, where R, R', and R" stand for alkyl groups.
Alcohols are also classified based on the length of the alkyl groups.
Short-chain alcohols have alkyl chains of 1- 3 carbons.
Medium-chain alcohols have alkyl chains of 4-7 carbons.
Long-chain alcohols (also known as fatty alcohols) have alkyl chains of 8-21 carbons.
Very long-chain alcohols have alkyl chains of 22 carbons or longer.
Child Classes: a cyclic alcohol (109) , a diol (70) , a galactinol-type-disaccharide-sugar-alcohol (1) , a long-chain alcohol (7) , a medium-chain alcohol (5) , a monoterpenol (50) , a primary alcohol (22) , a secondary alcohol (2) , a sesquiterpenol (4) , a short-chain alcohol (3) , a sugar alcohol (31) , a tertiary alcohol (0) , a very long chain alcohol (11) , an amino alcohol (11)
benzyl alcohol ,
Reactions known to produce the compound:
Not in pathways:
a 6-phospho-β-D-galactoside + H2O → α-D-galactose 6-phosphate + an alcohol
a 2-deoxy-α-D-glucoside + H2O → 2-deoxy-D-glucose + an alcohol
α-L-fucoside + H2O → L-fucopyranose + an alcohol
an N5-acyl-L-ornithine-ester + H2O → an N5-acyl-L-ornithine + an alcohol
an organic molecule + H2O + 2 oxygen → an alcohol + 2 superoxide + 2 H+
a 6-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside + H2O → β-primeverose + an alcohol
a reduced thioredoxin + an organic hydroperoxide → an oxidized thioredoxin + an alcohol + H2O
an acetic ester + H2O → an alcohol + acetate + H+
a carboxylic ester + H2O → an alcohol + a carboxylate + H+
an N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminide + H2O → an N-acetyl-β-D-hexosamine + an alcohol
an oligosaccharide with β-L-arabinopyranose at the non-reducing end + H2O → β-L-arabinopyranose + an alcohol
RH + a reduced [NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + oxygen → ROH + an oxidized [NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
a phosphate monoester + H2O → an alcohol + phosphate
an α amino acid ester + H2O → an alcohol + an α amino acid + H+
an α-D-glucuronoside + H2O → D-glucopyranuronate + an alcohol
an alcohol + NAD+ + H2O ← an organic hydroperoxide + NADH + H+
In Reactions of unknown directionality:
Not in pathways:
an organic molecule + hydrogen peroxide = an alcohol + H2O
an organic molecule + an organic hydroperoxide = 2 an alcohol
2 protein cysteines + an organic hydroperoxide = a protein disulfide + an alcohol + H2O
an alcohol + acetyl-CoA = an acetic ester + coenzyme A
trans-cinnamoyl-β-D-glucoside + an alcohol = β-D-glucose + alkyl cinnamate
an alcohol + NADP+ = an aldehyde + NADPH + H+
an alcohol + NAD(P)+ = an aldehyde + NAD(P)H + H+
an alcohol + 3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + an organosulfate + H+
Enzymes activated by an alcohol, sorted by the type of activation, are:
Izui83: Izui K, Matsuda Y, Kameshita I, Katsuki H, Woods AE (1983). "Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Escherichia coli. Inhibition by various analogs and homologs of phosphoenolpyruvate." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1983;94(6);1789-95. PMID: 6368527
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