|Superclasses:||Reactions Classified By Conversion Type → Simple Reactions → Chemical Reactions|
|Reactions Classified By Substrate → Small-Molecule Reactions|
EC Number: 18.104.22.168
The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.
Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3, and some reactions have been computationally balanced for hydrogen by adding free protons. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.
Mass balance status: Balanced.
Enzyme Commission Primary Name: betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase
Enzyme Commission Synonyms: betaine aldehyde oxidase, BADH, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, BetB
This is the second reaction in the betaine biosynthetic pathway.
Enzyme Commission Summary:
In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine. This enzyme is involved in the second step and appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria. In contrast, different enzymes are involved in the first reaction. In plants, this reaction is catalysed by EC 22.214.171.124 (choline monooxygenase), whereas in animals and many bacteria, it is catalysed by either membrane-bound EC 126.96.36.199 (choline dehydrogenase) or soluble EC 188.8.131.52 (choline oxidase) . In some bacteria, betaine is synthesized from glycine through the actions of EC 184.108.40.206 (glycine/sarcosine N-methyltransferase) and EC 220.127.116.11 (sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase).
Johansson98a: Johansson K, El-Ahmad M, Ramaswamy S, Hjelmqvist L, Jornvall H, Eklund H (1998). "Structure of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase at 2.1 A resolution." Protein Sci 7(10);2106-17. PMID: 9792097
Livingstone03: Livingstone JR, Maruo T, Yoshida I, Tarui Y, Hirooka K, Yamamoto Y, Tsutui N, Hirasawa E (2003). "Purification and properties of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Avena sativa." J Plant Res 116(2);133-40. PMID: 12736784
MunozClares03: Munoz-Clares RA, Gonzalez-Segura L, Mujica-Jimenez C, Contreras-Diaz L (2003). "Ligand-induced conformational changes of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. leaves affecting the reactivity of the catalytic thiol." Chem Biol Interact 143-144;129-37. PMID: 12604197
Waditee03: Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T (2003). "Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica." J Biol Chem 278(7);4932-42. PMID: 12466265
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