Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Reaction:

Superclasses: Reactions Classified By Conversion TypeSimple ReactionsChemical Reactions
Reactions Classified By SubstrateSmall-Molecule Reactions

EC Number:

Enzymes and Genes:
betaine aldehyde dehydrogenaseInferred from experiment: betB

In Pathway: glycine betaine biosynthesis I (Gram-negative bacteria)

The direction shown, i.e. which substrates are on the left and right sides, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.

Mass balance status: Balanced.

Enzyme Commission Primary Name: betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase

Enzyme Commission Synonyms: betaine aldehyde oxidase, BADH, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, BetB

This is the second reaction in the betaine biosynthetic pathway.

Enzyme Commission Summary:
In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine. This enzyme is involved in the second step and appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria. In contrast, different enzymes are involved in the first reaction. In plants, this reaction is catalysed by EC (choline monooxygenase), whereas in animals and many bacteria, it is catalysed by either membrane-bound EC (choline dehydrogenase) or soluble EC (choline oxidase) [5]. In some bacteria, betaine is synthesized from glycine through the actions of EC (glycine/sarcosine N-methyltransferase) and EC (sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase).

Citations: [ROTHSCHILD54 , Livingstone03, MunozClares03 , Johansson98, Waditee03]

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Relationship Links: BRENDA:EC:, ENZYME:EC:, IUBMB-ExplorEnz:EC:


Johansson98: Johansson K, El-Ahmad M, Ramaswamy S, Hjelmqvist L, Jornvall H, Eklund H (1998). "Structure of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase at 2.1 A resolution." Protein Sci 7(10);2106-17. PMID: 9792097

Livingstone03: Livingstone JR, Maruo T, Yoshida I, Tarui Y, Hirooka K, Yamamoto Y, Tsutui N, Hirasawa E (2003). "Purification and properties of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Avena sativa." J Plant Res 116(2);133-40. PMID: 12736784

MunozClares03: Munoz-Clares RA, Gonzalez-Segura L, Mujica-Jimenez C, Contreras-Diaz L (2003). "Ligand-induced conformational changes of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. leaves affecting the reactivity of the catalytic thiol." Chem Biol Interact 143-144;129-37. PMID: 12604197

ROTHSCHILD54: ROTHSCHILD HA, BARRON ES (1954). "The oxidation of betaine aldehyde by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 209(2);511-23. PMID: 13192104

Waditee03: Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T (2003). "Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica." J Biol Chem 278(7);4932-42. PMID: 12466265

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Wed Nov 25, 2015, biocyc12.