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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Protein: NtrC transcriptional dual regulator

Gene: glnG Accession Numbers: EG10385 (EcoCyc), b3868, ECK3861

Synonyms: glnT, ntrC, NtrC response regulator, NRI, nitrogen regulator I

Regulation Summary Diagram

Regulation summary diagram for glnG

Subunit composition of NtrC transcriptional dual regulator = [GlnG]2
         NtrC transcriptional dual regulator = GlnG

Alternative forms of NtrC transcriptional dual regulator: NtrC-phosphorylated monomer

Citations: [Lee00c, Pahel79a]

Gene Citations: [MirandaRios87, SasseDwight88, Magasanik89 , UenoNishio84, UenoNishio83]

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [4,051,892 <- 4,053,301] (87.33 centisomes, 314°)
Length: 1410 bp / 469 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 52.255 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

pI: 6.3, 6.52

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0012632, CGSC:702, DIP:DIP-9781N, EchoBASE:EB0380, EcoGene:EG10385, EcoliWiki:b3868, ModBase:P0AFB8, OU-Microarray:b3868, PortEco:glnG, PR:PRO_000022786, Protein Model Portal:P0AFB8, RefSeq:NP_418304, RegulonDB:EG10385, SMR:P0AFB8, String:511145.b3868, Swiss-Model:P0AFB8, UniProt:P0AFB8

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001789, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002078, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002197, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003593, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR009057, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR010114, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011006, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR025662, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR025943, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR025944, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR027417, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00072, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00158, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02954, Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR01590, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00675, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00676, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00688, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS50045, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS50110, Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00382, Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00448

In Paralogous Gene Group: 121 (40 members)

Reactions known to consume the compound:

Nitrogen Regulation Two-Component System :
NtrB-Phis + NtrC → NtrB + NtrC-Pasp

NtrBC Two-Component Signal Transduction System, nitrogen-dependent :
NtrB-Phis + NtrC → NtrB sensory histidine kinase + NtrC-Pasp

Reactions known to produce the compound:

Nitrogen Regulation Two-Component System :
NtrC-Pasp + H2O → NtrC + phosphate

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for glnG

GO Terms:
Biological Process:
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0000160 - phosphorelay signal transduction system [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a, Gaudet10]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006351 - transcription, DNA-templated [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006355 - regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a, Gaudet10]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006808 - regulation of nitrogen utilization [GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0009399 - nitrogen fixation [UniProtGOA11a]
Molecular Function:
Inferred from experimentGO:0005515 - protein binding [Rajagopala14, Salinas03]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0000156 - phosphorelay response regulator activity [GOA01a, Gaudet10]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0000166 - nucleotide binding [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0003677 - DNA binding [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0003700 - transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding [Gaudet10]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0005524 - ATP binding [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0008134 - transcription factor binding [GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0043565 - sequence-specific DNA binding [GOA01a, Gaudet10]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0044212 - transcription regulatory region DNA binding [Gaudet10]
Cellular Component:
Inferred from experimentInferred by computational analysisGO:0005829 - cytosol [DiazMejia09, Zhang07]

MultiFun Terms: information transferRNA relatedTranscription related
metabolismbiosynthesis of building blocksamino acidsglutamine
regulationgenetic unit regulatedoperon
regulationtype of regulationtranscriptional levelactivator
regulationtype of regulationtranscriptional levelcomplex regulationtwo component regulatory systems (external signal)
regulationtype of regulationtranscriptional levelrepressor

Symmetry: Inverted Repeat

Regulated Transcription Units (1 total):


Transcription-unit diagram

Regulated Transcription Units (1 total):


Transcription-unit diagram

Essentiality data for glnG knockouts:

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB LennoxYes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
M9 medium with 1% glycerolYes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 2]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucoseYes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of NtrC transcriptional dual regulator with features indicated

Feature Class Location Attached Group Citations Comment
Conserved-Region 5 -> 119  
Inferred by computational analysis[UniProt15]
UniProt: Response regulatory.
Pfam PF00072 6 -> 115  
Inferred by computational analysis[Finn14]
Response_reg : Response regulator receiver domain
4-aspartylphosphate-Modification 54  
Inferred by computational analysis[UniProt15]
UniProt: 4-aspartylphosphate.
Conserved-Region 140 -> 369  
Inferred by computational analysis[UniProt15]
UniProt: Sigma-54 factor interaction.
Pfam PF00158 140 -> 306  
Inferred by computational analysis[Finn14]
Sigma54_activat : Sigma-54 interaction domain
Sequence-Conflict 142 -> 144  
Inferred by curator[MirandaRios87, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; CAA28808).
Nucleotide-Phosphate-Binding-Region 168 -> 175 ATP
Inferred by computational analysis[UniProt15]
UniProt: ATP.
Nucleotide-Phosphate-Binding-Region 231 -> 240 ATP
Inferred by computational analysis[UniProt15]
UniProt: ATP.
Pfam PF02954 427 -> 466  
Inferred by computational analysis[Finn14]
HTH_8 : Bacterial regulatory protein, Fis family
DNA-Binding-Region 445 -> 464  
Inferred by computational analysis[UniProt15]
UniProt: H-T-H motif.

Gene Local Context (not to scale -- see Genome Browser for correct scale)

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


3/2/1998 (pkarp) Merged genes G257/b3868 and EG10385/glnG
10/20/97 Gene b3868 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10385; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Finn14: Finn RD, Bateman A, Clements J, Coggill P, Eberhardt RY, Eddy SR, Heger A, Hetherington K, Holm L, Mistry J, Sonnhammer EL, Tate J, Punta M (2014). "Pfam: the protein families database." Nucleic Acids Res 42(Database issue);D222-30. PMID: 24288371

Gaudet10: Gaudet P, Livstone M, Thomas P (2010). "Annotation inferences using phylogenetic trees." PMID: 19578431

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Lee00c: Lee J, Owens JT, Hwang I, Meares C, Kustu S (2000). "Phosphorylation-induced signal propagation in the response regulator ntrC." J Bacteriol 182(18);5188-95. PMID: 10960104

Magasanik89: Magasanik B (1989). "Regulation of transcription of the glnALG operon of Escherichia coli by protein phosphorylation." Biochimie NIL;71(9-10);1005-12. PMID: 2574599

MirandaRios87: Miranda-Rios J, Sanchez-Pescador R, Urdea M, Covarrubias AA (1987). "The complete nucleotide sequence of the glnALG operon of Escherichia coli K12." Nucleic Acids Res 15(6);2757-70. PMID: 2882477

Pahel79a: Pahel G, Tyler B (1979). "A new glnA-linked regulatory gene for glutamine synthetase in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1979;76(9);4544-8. PMID: 41243

Rajagopala14: Rajagopala SV, Sikorski P, Kumar A, Mosca R, Vlasblom J, Arnold R, Franca-Koh J, Pakala SB, Phanse S, Ceol A, Hauser R, Siszler G, Wuchty S, Emili A, Babu M, Aloy P, Pieper R, Uetz P (2014). "The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli." Nat Biotechnol 32(3);285-90. PMID: 24561554

Salinas03: Salinas P, Contreras A (2003). "Identification and analysis of Escherichia coli proteins that interact with the histidine kinase NtrB in a yeast two-hybrid system." Mol Genet Genomics 269(4);574-81. PMID: 12838411

SasseDwight88: Sasse-Dwight S, Gralla JD (1988). "Probing the Escherichia coli glnALG upstream activation mechanism in vivo." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1988;85(23);8934-8. PMID: 2904147

UenoNishio83: Ueno-Nishio S, Backman KC, Magasanik B (1983). "Regulation at the glnL-operator-promoter of the complex glnALG operon of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 153(3);1247-51. PMID: 6131062

UenoNishio84: Ueno-Nishio S, Mango S, Reitzer LJ, Magasanik B (1984). "Identification and regulation of the glnL operator-promoter of the complex glnALG operon of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1984;160(1);379-84. PMID: 6148334

UniProt15: UniProt Consortium (2015). "UniProt version 2015-08 released on 2015-07-22." Database.

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Zhang07: Zhang N, Chen R, Young N, Wishart D, Winter P, Weiner JH, Li L (2007). "Comparison of SDS- and methanol-assisted protein solubilization and digestion methods for Escherichia coli membrane proteome analysis by 2-D LC-MS/MS." Proteomics 7(4);484-93. PMID: 17309111

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Atkinson02: Atkinson MR, Pattaramanon N, Ninfa AJ (2002). "Governor of the glnAp2 promoter of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 46(5);1247-57. PMID: 12453212

ColladoVides91: Collado-Vides J, Magasanik B, Gralla JD (1991). "Control site location and transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli." Microbiol Rev 1991;55(3);371-94. PMID: 1943993

Huo06: Huo YX, Nan BY, You CH, Tian ZX, Kolb A, Wang YP (2006). "FIS activates glnAp2 in Escherichia coli: role of a DNA bend centered at -55, upstream of the transcription start site." FEMS Microbiol Lett 257(1);99-105. PMID: 16553838

Kumar11: Kumar R, Shimizu K (2011). "Transcriptional regulation of main metabolic pathways of cyoA, cydB, fnr, and fur gene knockout Escherichia coli in C-limited and N-limited aerobic continuous cultures." Microb Cell Fact 10;3. PMID: 21272324

Ninfa87: Ninfa AJ, Reitzer LJ, Magasanik B (1987). "Initiation of transcription at the bacterial glnAp2 promoter by purified E. coli components is facilitated by enhancers." Cell 1987;50(7);1039-46. PMID: 3304660

Reitzer85: Reitzer LJ, Magasanik B (1985). "Expression of glnA in Escherichia coli is regulated at tandem promoters." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1985;82(7);1979-83. PMID: 2858855

Reitzer86: Reitzer LJ, Magasanik B (1986). "Transcription of glnA in E. coli is stimulated by activator bound to sites far from the promoter." Cell 45(6);785-92. PMID: 2871943

Reitzer89: Reitzer LJ, Movsas B, Magasanik B (1989). "Activation of glnA transcription by nitrogen regulator I (NRI)-phosphate in Escherichia coli: evidence for a long-range physical interaction between NRI-phosphate and RNA polymerase." J Bacteriol 1989;171(10);5512-22. PMID: 2571609

Rocha85: Rocha M, Vazquez M, Garciarrubio A, Covarrubias AA (1985). "Nucleotide sequence of the glnA-glnL intercistronic region of Escherichia coli." Gene 37(1-3);91-9. PMID: 2865194

Tian01: Tian ZX, Li QS, Buck M, Kolb A, Wang YP (2001). "The CRP-cAMP complex and downregulation of the glnAp2 promoter provides a novel regulatory linkage between carbon metabolism and nitrogen assimilation in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 41(4);911-24. PMID: 11532153

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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