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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: 30S ribosomal subunit protein S20



Gene: rpsT Accession Numbers: EG10919 (EcoCyc), b0023, ECK0024

Synonyms: supS, sup(s20), supS20

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Component of:
30S ribosomal subunit (summary available)
ribosome (summary available)

Summary:
The S20 protein is a component of the 30S subunit of the ribosome and appears to be involved in translation initiation and the association of the 30S and 50S subunits [Gotz90]. S20 was also identified as antizyme 1, an inhibitor of the biosynthetic ornithine and arginine decarboxylases; these enzymes are involved in the biosynthesis of polyamine [Panagiotidis84]. S20 is identical to L26.

The synthesis of S20 is regulated at the post-transcriptional level [Parsons83, Wirth81]; in an in vitro system, S20 represses its own synthesis [Wirth82]. However, S20 doesn't show affinity for its own mRNA [Donly88]. The UUG initiation codon appears to be important for regulation [Parsons88]. Processing and degradation of rpsT mRNA have been studied extensively; see for example [Baker03, Mackie00] and references therein. rpsT mRNA stability and translational efficiency are linked [Parsons88, Rapaport94].

S20 physically interacts with ornithine and arginine decarboxylase, and overexpression of S20 decreases the production of polyamine in vivo [Panagiotidis95]. Levels of S20 increase in response to polyamines; the effect is thought to be due to an increase in the level of transcription of rpsT [Huang90].

S20 binds to the 5' domain and the 3' minor domain of 16S rRNA [Marquardt79, Stern88a, Weitzmann93, Cormack91]. C-terminal residues of S20 are required for binding to 16S rRNA [Donly88]. Hydroxyl radical footprinting provided evidence that S20 is located near the bottom of the 30S subunit [Culver98]. Further footprinting studies provided insight into 30S subunit assembly [Dutca08]. S20 has a local effect on the stability of the folded structure of 16S rRNA [Ramaswamy09].

The sup(S20) mutation in rpsT suppresses defects of an alanyl-tRNA synthetase mutant [Bock74, Buckel76a]. A spontaneous mutation in rpsT causes a temperature-sensitive phenotype and increases the ability of the ribosome to misread nonsense stop codons [RydenAulin93]. An rpsT null mutant shows impaired growth, but is viable [Bubunenko07]. A 30S ribosomal subunit lacking S20 shows a reduced rate of mRNA binding and 70S complex formation [Tobin10].

Gene Citations: [Mackie92, Coburn98, Mackie86]

Locations: cytosol, ribosome

Map Position: [20,815 <- 21,078] (0.45 centisomes)
Length: 264 bp / 87 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 9.684 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0000082 , CGSC:212 , DIP:DIP-35857N , EchoBASE:EB0912 , EcoGene:EG10919 , EcoliWiki:b0023 , OU-Microarray:b0023 , PortEco:rpsT , PR:PRO_000023873 , Pride:P0A7U7 , Protein Model Portal:P0A7U7 , RefSeq:NP_414564 , RegulonDB:EG10919 , SMR:P0A7U7 , String:511145.b0023 , UniProt:P0A7U7

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002583 , PDB:Structure:1M5G , PDB:Structure:1P6G , PDB:Structure:1P87 , PDB:Structure:1VS5 , PDB:Structure:1VS7 , PDB:Structure:2AVY , PDB:Structure:2AW7 , PDB:Structure:2GY9 , PDB:Structure:2GYB , PDB:Structure:2I2P , PDB:Structure:2I2U , PDB:Structure:2QAL , PDB:Structure:2QAN , PDB:Structure:2QB9 , PDB:Structure:2QBB , PDB:Structure:2QBD , PDB:Structure:2QBF , PDB:Structure:2QBH , PDB:Structure:2QBJ , PDB:Structure:2QOU , PDB:Structure:2QOW , PDB:Structure:2QOY , PDB:Structure:2QP0 , PDB:Structure:2VHP , PDB:Structure:2WWL , PDB:Structure:2YKR , PDB:Structure:2Z4K , PDB:Structure:2Z4M , PDB:Structure:3DF1 , PDB:Structure:3DF3 , PDB:Structure:3E1A , PDB:Structure:3E1C , PDB:Structure:3FIH , PDB:Structure:3I1M , PDB:Structure:3I1O , PDB:Structure:3I1Q , PDB:Structure:3I1S , PDB:Structure:3I1Z , PDB:Structure:3I21 , PDB:Structure:3IZV , PDB:Structure:3IZW , PDB:Structure:3J00 , PDB:Structure:3J0U , PDB:Structure:3J0V , PDB:Structure:3J0X , PDB:Structure:3J0Z , PDB:Structure:3J10 , PDB:Structure:3J13 , PDB:Structure:3J18 , PDB:Structure:3J36 , PDB:Structure:3KC4 , PDB:Structure:3OAQ , PDB:Structure:3OAR , PDB:Structure:3OFA , PDB:Structure:3OFB , PDB:Structure:3OFO , PDB:Structure:3OFP , PDB:Structure:3OFX , PDB:Structure:3OFY , PDB:Structure:3OR9 , PDB:Structure:3ORA , PDB:Structure:3SFS , PDB:Structure:3UOQ , PDB:Structure:4A2I , PDB:Structure:4ADV , PDB:Structure:4GAQ , PDB:Structure:4GAS , PDB:Structure:4GD1 , PDB:Structure:4GD2 , PDB:Structure:4KIY , PDB:Structure:4KJ0 , PDB:Structure:4KJ2 , PDB:Structure:4KJ4 , PDB:Structure:4KJ6 , PDB:Structure:4KJ8 , PDB:Structure:4KJA , PDB:Structure:4KJC , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01649 , ProDom:IN-FAMILY:PD004231

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0043086 - negative regulation of catalytic activity Inferred from experiment [Panagiotidis84]
GO:0006412 - translation Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01a]
Molecular Function: GO:0008073 - ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor activity Inferred from experiment [Panagiotidis84]
GO:0070181 - small ribosomal subunit rRNA binding Inferred from experiment [Marquardt79]
GO:0003723 - RNA binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01a]
GO:0003735 - structural constituent of ribosome Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0019843 - rRNA binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA06]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09, Ishihama08]
GO:0022627 - cytosolic small ribosomal subunit Inferred from experiment [Hindennach71a, WittmannLiebold73]
GO:0005840 - ribosome Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01a]
GO:0030529 - ribonucleoprotein complex Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure ribosomes
information transfer protein related ribosomal proteins
information transfer protein related translation
regulation type of regulation posttranscriptional inhibition / activation of enzymes

Essentiality data for rpsT knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB Lennox Indeterminate 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
Low [Bubunenko07]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 2]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]

Credits:
Last-Curated ? 17-Feb-2010 by Keseler I , SRI International


Subunit of: 30S ribosomal subunit

Synonyms: ribosome, small subunit

Subunit composition of 30S ribosomal subunit = [RrsA][RpsA][RpsB][RpsC][RpsD][RpsE][RpsF][RpsG][RpsH][RpsI][RpsJ][RpsK][RpsL][RpsM][RpsN][RpsO][RpsP][RpsQ][RpsR][RpsS][RpsT][RpsU][Sra]
         16S ribosomal RNA (rrsA) = RrsA (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S1 = RpsA (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S2 = RpsB (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S3 = RpsC (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S4 = RpsD (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S5 = RpsE (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S6 = RpsF (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S7 = RpsG (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S8 = RpsH (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S9 = RpsI (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S10 = RpsJ (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S11 = RpsK (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S12 = RpsL (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S13 = RpsM (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S14 = RpsN (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S15 = RpsO (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S16 = RpsP (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S17 = RpsQ (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S18 = RpsR (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S19 = RpsS (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S20 = RpsT (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S21 = RpsU (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S22 = Sra (summary available)

Component of: ribosome (summary available)

Summary:
Assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit has been studied in real time. Initial assembly is linked to the formation of structured 16S rRNA regions, while later steps involve induced fit between ribosomal proteins and the rRNA [Adilakshmi08]. Discovery single-particle profiling was used to visualize assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit by indentifying and following changes among 14 subunit assembly intermediates over time [Mulder10]. The kinetically favored assembly pathway of the 30S preinitiation complex has been determined [Milon12].

The function of the ribosomal P site has been reviewed [Noller05].

Relationship Links: PDB:Structure:1P6G , PDB:Structure:1P87 , PDB:Structure:2AVY

Enzymes activated by 30S ribosomal subunit, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: GTPase [Daigle04, Himeno04]

Credits:
Created 28-Mar-2006 by Keseler I , SRI International


Subunit of: ribosome

Subunit composition of ribosome = [(RrsA)(RpsA)(RpsB)(RpsC)(RpsD)(RpsE)(RpsF)(RpsG)(RpsH)(RpsI)(RpsJ)(RpsK)(RpsL)(RpsM)(RpsN)(RpsO)(RpsP)(RpsQ)(RpsR)(RpsS)(RpsT)(RpsU)(Sra)][(RrlA)(RrfA)(RplA)(RplB)(RplC)(RplD)(RplE)(RplF)([RplJ][(RplL)2]2)(RplI)(RplK)(RplM)(RplN)(RplO)(RplP)(RplQ)(RplR)(RplS)(RplT)(RplU)(RplV)(RplW)(RplX)(RplY)(RpmA)(RpmB)(RpmC)(RpmD)(RpmE)(RpmF)(RpmG)(RpmH)(RpmI)(RpmJ)]
         30S ribosomal subunit = (RrsA)(RpsA)(RpsB)(RpsC)(RpsD)(RpsE)(RpsF)(RpsG)(RpsH)(RpsI)(RpsJ)(RpsK)(RpsL)(RpsM)(RpsN)(RpsO)(RpsP)(RpsQ)(RpsR)(RpsS)(RpsT)(RpsU)(Sra) (summary available)
                 16S ribosomal RNA (rrsA) = RrsA (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S1 = RpsA (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S2 = RpsB (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S3 = RpsC (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S4 = RpsD (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S5 = RpsE (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S6 = RpsF (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S7 = RpsG (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S8 = RpsH (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S9 = RpsI (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S10 = RpsJ (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S11 = RpsK (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S12 = RpsL (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S13 = RpsM (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S14 = RpsN (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S15 = RpsO (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S16 = RpsP (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S17 = RpsQ (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S18 = RpsR (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S19 = RpsS (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S20 = RpsT (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S21 = RpsU (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S22 = Sra (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit = (RrlA)(RrfA)(RplA)(RplB)(RplC)(RplD)(RplE)(RplF)([RplJ][(RplL)2]2)(RplI)(RplK)(RplM)(RplN)(RplO)(RplP)(RplQ)(RplR)(RplS)(RplT)(RplU)(RplV)(RplW)(RplX)(RplY)(RpmA)(RpmB)(RpmC)(RpmD)(RpmE)(RpmF)(RpmG)(RpmH)(RpmI)(RpmJ)
                 23S ribosomal RNA (rrlA) = RrlA (extended summary available)
                 5S ribosomal RNA (rrfA) = RrfA (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L1 = RplA (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L2 = RplB (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L3 = RplC (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L4 = RplD (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L5 = RplE (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L6 = RplF (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal protein complex L8 = (RplJ)([RplL]2)2 (summary available)
                         50S ribosomal subunit protein L10 = RplJ (extended summary available)
                         50S ribosomal subunit protein L7/L12 dimer = (RplL)2
                                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L12 = RplL
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L9 = RplI (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L11 = RplK (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L13 = RplM (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L14 = RplN (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L15 = RplO (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L16 = RplP (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L17 = RplQ (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L18 = RplR (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L19 = RplS (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L20 = RplT (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L21 = RplU (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L22 = RplV (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L23 = RplW (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L24 = RplX (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L25 = RplY (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L27 = RpmA (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L28 = RpmB (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L29 = RpmC (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L30 = RpmD (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L31 = RpmE (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L32 = RpmF (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L33 = RpmG (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L34 = RpmH (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L35 = RpmI (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L36 = RpmJ (summary available)

Summary:
The ribosome is a complex machinery that translates the genetic code.

A crystal structure of the E. coli ribosome has been determined at 3.5 Å resolution [Schuwirth05]. Additional crystal structures of the ribosome with tRNA bound in two functionally distinct states reveal how a ratchet-like motion of the small and large subunits contributes to translocation, termination of translation, and ribosome recycling [Zhang09b, Dunkle11].

Approximately eight molecules of Zn2+ are bound to the ribosome; therefore, it appears that a large fraction of intracellular Zn2+ is ribosome-associated [Hensley11].

Selected reviews: [Ramakrishnan02, Yonath05, Ogle05, Kaczanowska07]

Citations: [Kuhlenkoetter11]

Relationship Links: PDB:Structure:3R8N , PDB:Structure:3R8O , PDB:Structure:3R8S , PDB:Structure:3R8T

Credits:
Created 15-Jun-2006 by Keseler I , SRI International


Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Cleavage-of-Initial-Methionine 1
[WittmannLiebold76, UniProt11]
UniProt: Removed.
Chain 2 -> 87
[UniProt09]
UniProt: 30S ribosomal protein S20;
Sequence-Conflict 38
[Kamio85, UniProt10a]
Alternate sequence: A → R; UniProt: (in Ref. 2; AAA24604);


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Units:

Notes:

History:
10/20/97 Gene b0023 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10919; confirmed by SwissProt match.


References

Adilakshmi08: Adilakshmi T, Bellur DL, Woodson SA (2008). "Concurrent nucleation of 16S folding and induced fit in 30S ribosome assembly." Nature 455(7217);1268-72. PMID: 18784650

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Baker03: Baker KE, Mackie GA (2003). "Ectopic RNase E sites promote bypass of 5'-end-dependent mRNA decay in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 47(1);75-88. PMID: 12492855

Bock74: Bock A, Ruffler D, Piepersberg W, Wittmann HG (1974). "Genetic analysis of an alteration of ribosomal protein S20 in revertants of an alanyl-tRNA-synthetase mutant of Escherichia coli." Mol Gen Genet 134(4);325-32. PMID: 4614080

Bubunenko07: Bubunenko M, Baker T, Court DL (2007). "Essentiality of ribosomal and transcription antitermination proteins analyzed by systematic gene replacement in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 189(7);2844-53. PMID: 17277072

Buckel76a: Buckel P (1976). "Identity of a gene responsible for suppression of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase mutations with rpsT, the structural gene for ribosomal protein S20." Mol Gen Genet 149(2);225-8. PMID: 796681

Coburn98: Coburn GA, Mackie GA (1998). "Reconstitution of the degradation of the mRNA for ribosomal protein S20 with purified enzymes." J Mol Biol 279(5);1061-74. PMID: 9642084

Cormack91: Cormack RS, Mackie GA (1991). "Mapping ribosomal protein S20-16 S rRNA interactions by mutagenesis." J Biol Chem 266(28);18525-9. PMID: 1717450

Culver98: Culver GM, Noller HF (1998). "Directed hydroxyl radical probing of 16S ribosomal RNA in ribosomes containing Fe(II) tethered to ribosomal protein S20." RNA 4(12);1471-80. PMID: 9848646

Daigle04: Daigle DM, Brown ED (2004). "Studies of the interaction of Escherichia coli YjeQ with the ribosome in vitro." J Bacteriol 186(5);1381-7. PMID: 14973029

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Donly88: Donly BC, Mackie GA (1988). "Affinities of ribosomal protein S20 and C-terminal deletion mutants for 16S rRNA and S20 mRNA." Nucleic Acids Res 16(3);997-1010. PMID: 2449659

Dunkle11: Dunkle JA, Wang L, Feldman MB, Pulk A, Chen VB, Kapral GJ, Noeske J, Richardson JS, Blanchard SC, Cate JH (2011). "Structures of the bacterial ribosome in classical and hybrid states of tRNA binding." Science 332(6032);981-4. PMID: 21596992

Dutca08: Dutca LM, Culver GM (2008). "Assembly of the 5' and 3' minor domains of 16S ribosomal RNA as monitored by tethered probing from ribosomal protein S20." J Mol Biol 376(1);92-108. PMID: 18155048

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Gotz90: Gotz F, Dabbs ER, Gualerzi CO (1990). "Escherichia coli 30S mutants lacking protein S20 are defective in translation initiation." Biochim Biophys Acta 1050(1-3);93-7. PMID: 2207174

Hensley11: Hensley MP, Tierney DL, Crowder MW (2011). "Zn(II) binding to Escherichia coli 70S ribosomes." Biochemistry 50(46);9937-9. PMID: 22026583

Himeno04: Himeno H, Hanawa-Suetsugu K, Kimura T, Takagi K, Sugiyama W, Shirata S, Mikami T, Odagiri F, Osanai Y, Watanabe D, Goto S, Kalachnyuk L, Ushida C, Muto A (2004). "A novel GTPase activated by the small subunit of ribosome." Nucleic Acids Res 32(17);5303-9. PMID: 15466596

Hindennach71a: Hindennach I, Stoffler G, Wittmann HG (1971). "Ribosomal proteins. Isolation of the proteins from 30S ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 23(1);7-11. PMID: 4942549

Huang90: Huang SC, Panagiotidis CA, Canellakis ES (1990). "Transcriptional effects of polyamines on ribosomal proteins and on polyamine-synthesizing enzymes in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87(9);3464-8. PMID: 2185470

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Kaczanowska07: Kaczanowska M, Ryden-Aulin M (2007). "Ribosome biogenesis and the translation process in Escherichia coli." Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 71(3);477-94. PMID: 17804668

Kamio85: Kamio Y, Lin CK, Regue M, Wu HC (1985). "Characterization of the ileS-lsp operon in Escherichia coli. Identification of an open reading frame upstream of the ileS gene and potential promoter(s) for the ileS-lsp operon." J Biol Chem 260(9);5616-20. PMID: 2985604

Kuhlenkoetter11: Kuhlenkoetter S, Wintermeyer W, Rodnina MV (2011). "Different substrate-dependent transition states in the active site of the ribosome." Nature 476(7360);351-4. PMID: 21804565

Mackie00: Mackie GA (2000). "Stabilization of circular rpsT mRNA demonstrates the 5'-end dependence of RNase E action in vivo." J Biol Chem 275(33);25069-72. PMID: 10871599

Mackie86: Mackie GA (1986). "Structure of the DNA distal to the gene for ribosomal protein S20 in Escherichia coli K12: presence of a strong terminator and an IS1 element." Nucleic Acids Res 1986;14(17);6965-81. PMID: 2429258

Mackie92: Mackie GA (1992). "Secondary structure of the mRNA for ribosomal protein S20. Implications for cleavage by ribonuclease E." J Biol Chem 267(2);1054-61. PMID: 1370457

Marquardt79: Marquardt O, Roth HE, Wystup G, Nierhaus KH (1979). "Binding of Escherichia coli ribosomal proteins to 23S RNA under reconstitution conditions for the 50S subunit." Nucleic Acids Res 6(11);3641-50. PMID: 386275

Milon12: Milon P, Maracci C, Filonava L, Gualerzi CO, Rodnina MV (2012). "Real-time assembly landscape of bacterial 30S translation initiation complex." Nat Struct Mol Biol 19(6);609-15. PMID: 22562136

Mulder10: Mulder AM, Yoshioka C, Beck AH, Bunner AE, Milligan RA, Potter CS, Carragher B, Williamson JR (2010). "Visualizing ribosome biogenesis: parallel assembly pathways for the 30S subunit." Science 330(6004);673-7. PMID: 21030658

Noller05: Noller HF, Hoang L, Fredrick K (2005). "The 30S ribosomal P site: a function of 16S rRNA." FEBS Lett 579(4);855-8. PMID: 15680962

Ogle05: Ogle JM, Ramakrishnan V (2005). "Structural insights into translational fidelity." Annu Rev Biochem 74;129-77. PMID: 15952884

Panagiotidis84: Panagiotidis CA, Canellakis ES (1984). "Comparison of the basic Escherichia coli antizyme 1 and antizyme 2 with the ribosomal proteins S20/L26 and L34." J Biol Chem 259(24);15025-7. PMID: 6392292

Panagiotidis95: Panagiotidis CA, Huang SC, Canellakis ES (1995). "Relationship of the expression of the S20 and L34 ribosomal proteins to polyamine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli." Int J Biochem Cell Biol 27(2);157-68. PMID: 7539334

Parsons83: Parsons GD, Mackie GA (1983). "Expression of the gene for ribosomal protein S20: effects of gene dosage." J Bacteriol 154(1);152-60. PMID: 6187728

Parsons88: Parsons GD, Donly BC, Mackie GA (1988). "Mutations in the leader sequence and initiation codon of the gene for ribosomal protein S20 (rpsT) affect both translational efficiency and autoregulation." J Bacteriol 170(6);2485-92. PMID: 3286608

Ramakrishnan02: Ramakrishnan V (2002). "Ribosome structure and the mechanism of translation." Cell 108(4);557-72. PMID: 11909526

Ramaswamy09: Ramaswamy P, Woodson SA (2009). "Global stabilization of rRNA structure by ribosomal proteins S4, S17, and S20." J Mol Biol 392(3);666-77. PMID: 19616559

Rapaport94: Rapaport LR, Mackie GA (1994). "Influence of translational efficiency on the stability of the mRNA for ribosomal protein S20 in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 176(4);992-8. PMID: 8106342

RydenAulin93: Ryden-Aulin M, Shaoping Z, Kylsten P, Isaksson LA (1993). "Ribosome activity and modification of 16S RNA are influenced by deletion of ribosomal protein S20." Mol Microbiol 7(6);983-92. PMID: 7683367

Schuwirth05: Schuwirth BS, Borovinskaya MA, Hau CW, Zhang W, Vila-Sanjurjo A, Holton JM, Cate JH (2005). "Structures of the bacterial ribosome at 3.5 A resolution." Science 310(5749);827-34. PMID: 16272117

Stern88a: Stern S, Changchien LM, Craven GR, Noller HF (1988). "Interaction of proteins S16, S17 and S20 with 16 S ribosomal RNA." J Mol Biol 200(2);291-9. PMID: 3373529

Tobin10: Tobin C, Mandava CS, Ehrenberg M, Andersson DI, Sanyal S (2010). "Ribosomes lacking protein S20 are defective in mRNA binding and subunit association." J Mol Biol 397(3);767-76. PMID: 20149799

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-11 released on 2010-11-02 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt11: UniProt Consortium (2011). "UniProt version 2011-06 released on 2011-06-30 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Weitzmann93: Weitzmann CJ, Cunningham PR, Nurse K, Ofengand J (1993). "Chemical evidence for domain assembly of the Escherichia coli 30S ribosome." FASEB J 7(1);177-80. PMID: 7916699

Wirth81: Wirth R, Kohles V, Bock A (1981). "Factors modulating transcription and translation in vitro of ribosomal protein S20 and isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 114(2);429-37. PMID: 7011813

Wirth82: Wirth R, Littlechild J, Bock A (1982). "Ribosomal protein S20 purified under mild conditions almost completely inhibits its own translation." Mol Gen Genet 188(1);164-6. PMID: 6960227

WittmannLiebold73: Wittmann-Liebold B (1973). "Studies on the primary structure of 20 proteins from Escherichia coli ribosomes by means of an improved protein sequenator." FEBS Lett 36(3);247-9. PMID: 4587209

WittmannLiebold76: Wittmann-Liebold B, Marzinzig E, Lehmann A (1976). "Primary structure of protein S20 from the small ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli." FEBS Lett 68(1);110-4. PMID: 786731

Yonath05: Yonath A (2005). "Antibiotics targeting ribosomes: resistance, selectivity, synergism and cellular regulation." Annu Rev Biochem 74;649-79. PMID: 16180279

Zhang09b: Zhang W, Dunkle JA, Cate JH (2009). "Structures of the ribosome in intermediate states of ratcheting." Science 325(5943);1014-7. PMID: 19696352

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Lemke11: Lemke JJ, Sanchez-Vazquez P, Burgos HL, Hedberg G, Ross W, Gourse RL (2011). "Direct regulation of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein promoters by the transcription factors ppGpp and DksA." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(14);5712-7. PMID: 21402902

Mackie81: Mackie GA (1981). "Nucleotide sequence of the gene for ribosomal protein S20 and its flanking regions." J Biol Chem 256(15);8177-82. PMID: 6267039

Mackie83: Mackie GA, Parsons GD (1983). "Tandem promoters in the gene for ribosomal protein S20." J Biol Chem 258(12);7840-6. PMID: 6305958


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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