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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Protein: aspartate carbamoyltransferase, catalytic subunit

Gene: pyrB Accession Numbers: EG10805 (EcoCyc), b4245, ECK4240

Regulation Summary Diagram

Regulation summary diagram for pyrB

Component of: aspartate transcarbamylase (extended summary available)

Subunit composition of aspartate carbamoyltransferase, catalytic subunit = [PyrB]3
         aspartate carbamoyltransferase, PyrB subunit = PyrB

The catalytic subunit is enzymatically active but lacks the homotropic response to the substates, and is insensitive to inhibition by CTP [Neidhardt96].

Gene Citations: [Donahue94]

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [4,469,483 <- 4,470,418] (96.33 centisomes, 347°)
Length: 936 bp / 311 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 34.427 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 33.5 kD (experimental) [Rosenbusch71]

Molecular Weight of Multimer: 100.0 kD (experimental) [Rosenbusch71]

pI: 6.39

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0013892, CGSC:330, DIP:DIP-35089N, EchoBASE:EB0798, EcoGene:EG10805, EcoliWiki:b4245, Mint:MINT-1541312, OU-Microarray:b4245, PortEco:pyrB, PR:PRO_000023657, Pride:P0A786, Protein Model Portal:P0A786, RefSeq:NP_418666, RegulonDB:EG10805, SMR:P0A786, String:511145.b4245, UniProt:P0A786

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002082, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006130, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006131, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006132, PDB:Structure:1ACM, PDB:Structure:1AT1, PDB:Structure:1D09, PDB:Structure:1EKX, PDB:Structure:1EZZ, PDB:Structure:1F1B, PDB:Structure:1GQ3, PDB:Structure:1I5O, PDB:Structure:1NBE, PDB:Structure:1Q95, PDB:Structure:1R0B, PDB:Structure:1R0C, PDB:Structure:1RAA, PDB:Structure:1RAB, PDB:Structure:1RAC, PDB:Structure:1RAD, PDB:Structure:1RAE, PDB:Structure:1RAF, PDB:Structure:1RAG, PDB:Structure:1RAH, PDB:Structure:1RAI, PDB:Structure:1SKU, PDB:Structure:1TTH, PDB:Structure:1TU0, PDB:Structure:1TUG, PDB:Structure:1XJW, PDB:Structure:1ZA1, PDB:Structure:1ZA2, PDB:Structure:2A0F, PDB:Structure:2AIR, PDB:Structure:2AT1, PDB:Structure:2ATC, PDB:Structure:2FZC, PDB:Structure:2FZG, PDB:Structure:2FZK, PDB:Structure:2H3E, PDB:Structure:2HSE, PDB:Structure:2IPO, PDB:Structure:2QG9, PDB:Structure:2QGF, PDB:Structure:3AT1, PDB:Structure:3CSU, PDB:Structure:3D7S, PDB:Structure:3MPU, PDB:Structure:3NPM, PDB:Structure:4AT1, PDB:Structure:4E2F, PDB:Structure:4F04, PDB:Structure:4FYV, PDB:Structure:4FYW, PDB:Structure:4FYX, PDB:Structure:4FYY, PDB:Structure:4WTO, PDB:Structure:5AT1, PDB:Structure:6AT1, PDB:Structure:7AT1, PDB:Structure:8AT1, PDB:Structure:8ATC, PDB:Structure:9ATC, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00185, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02729, Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00100, Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00101, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00097

In Paralogous Gene Group: 84 (4 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for pyrB

GO Terms:
Biological Process:
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006207 - 'de novo' pyrimidine nucleobase biosynthetic process [GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006221 - pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic process [UniProtGOA11a, GOA06]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006520 - cellular amino acid metabolic process [GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0009220 - pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthetic process [Gaudet10]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0044205 - 'de novo' UMP biosynthetic process [UniProtGOA12]
Molecular Function:
Inferred from experimentGO:0005515 - protein binding [Rajagopala14, Lasserre06, Stieglitz04, Huang04a, Alam04, Macol01, Jin00, Jin99, Huang04]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0004070 - aspartate carbamoyltransferase activity [GOA06, GOA01, GOA01a, Gaudet10]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0016597 - amino acid binding [GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0016740 - transferase activity [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0016743 - carboxyl- or carbamoyltransferase activity [GOA01a]
Cellular Component:
Inferred from experimentGO:0005737 - cytoplasm [Lasserre06]
Inferred from experimentInferred by computational analysisGO:0005829 - cytosol [DiazMejia09, Ishihama08, LopezCampistrou05]

MultiFun Terms: metabolismbiosynthesis of building blocksnucleotidespyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesis

Essentiality data for pyrB knockouts:

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enrichedYes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB LennoxYes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 0.4% glucoseNo 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.27 No [Patrick07, Comment 3]
M9 medium with 1% glycerolNo 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 No [Joyce06]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucoseIndeterminate 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
No [Feist07, Comment 4]

Subunit of: aspartate transcarbamylase

Subunit composition of aspartate transcarbamylase = [(PyrB)3]2[(PyrI)2]3
         aspartate carbamoyltransferase, catalytic subunit = (PyrB)3 (summary available)
                 aspartate carbamoyltransferase, PyrB subunit = PyrB
         aspartate carbamoyltransferase, regulatory subunit = (PyrI)2 (summary available)
                 aspartate carbamoyltransferase, PyrI subunit = PyrI

Aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) catalyzes the first reaction unique to the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. The enzyme and its mechanism of allosteric regulation has been studied extensively; for details and further references to the primary literature, the reader is referred to the comprehensive reviews cited below.

The ATCase holoenzyme consists of two catalytic trimers (encoded by pyrB) and three regulatory dimers (encoded by pyrI) [Gerhart65, Nowlan85]. Numerous crystal structures of the enzyme have been solved (see below). The three regulatory dimers are located at the interface between the two catalytic trimers. Binding of the inhibitor, CTP, causes tightening of the structure, while binding of the activator, ATP, causes opening of the structure.

ATCase catalyzes carbamoyl aspartate formation by an ordered sequential reaction between aspartate and carbamoyl phosphate, showing cooperativity for the second substrate, aspartate [England94]. Allosteric regulation of the enzyme is achieved by a concerted transition between a low-affinity T state to a high-affinity R state that is induced upon binding of carbamoyl phosphate [Gerhart68, Howlett77, Wang05c].

The structural transitions of E. coli aspartate transcarbamylase have been analyzed by X-ray crystallography for several decades and this approach represents a large body of work in the field. Some of the work following the [Helmstaedt01] review is cited here. Structures of unliganded and liganded enzyme have been solved [Wang05c, Stieglitz05, Stieglitz09]. The structures of mutant enzymes have shown functionally important amino acid residues [Stieglitz05a]. Structural studies of the T-state, R-state, and the T to R state transition have also been published [Huang06, Heng06, Wang07c, Mendes10, Stieglitz04, Eldo06]. In addition, mutants in the PyrB catalytic subunit have been analyzed crystallographically [Alam04, Mendes10a].

Many biophysical [Herve04, West04, Wang08, Mendes10b], kinetic and modeling [Rabinowitz08, Tolonen11], inhibitor [Eldo07, Coudray09, Coudray09a], and mutant analysis [Macol02, Fetler02] studies have also helped to elucidate the function and regulation of aspartate transcarbamylase.

Reviews: [Kantrowitz88, Schachman88, Kantrowitz90, Helmstaedt01, Kantrowitz12]

Molecular Weight: 300.0 kD (experimental) [Rosenbusch71]

GO Terms:
Molecular Function:
Inferred from experimentGO:0004070 - aspartate carbamoyltransferase activity [Gerhart62]
Inferred from experimentGO:0008270 - zinc ion binding [Rosenbusch71]
Cellular Component:
Inferred from experimentGO:0009347 - aspartate carbamoyltransferase complex [Gerhart65]

Last-Curated 03-Jun-2011 by Fulcher C, SRI International

Enzymatic reaction of: aspartate transcarbamylase

Inferred from experiment

Synonyms: carbamylaspartotranskinase, ATCase, carbamoyl-phosphate:L-aspartate carbamoyltransferase, aspartate transcarbamoylase, aspartate carbamoyltransferase

EC Number:

L-aspartate + carbamoyl phosphate → N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate + phosphate + H+

The direction shown, i.e. which substrates are on the left and right sides, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

The reaction is favored in the direction shown.

In Pathways: superpathway of histidine, purine, and pyrimidine biosynthesis, superpathway of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis, superpathway of pyrimidine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis, UMP biosynthesis

UTP potentiates inhibition by CTP [Wild89, Zhang91, Hoover83]. The inhibitor CTP and the activator ATP do not simply act in inverse ways on the same equilibrium [Van91].

The enzyme binds Zn2+ tightly, but the ion does not appear to be required for catalytic activity [Rosenbusch71].

Mutant analysis indicated that aspartate and carbamyl phosphate homotropic co-operativity are separable and that CTP inhibition can be partially decoupled from ATP activation [Silver83].

Cofactor Binding Comment: Zinc binding domain interacts with the catalytic subunit; CTP binding domain interacts with an adjacent regulatory subunit. [Monaco78]

Activators (Allosteric): ATP [Ke84, Gerhart62] Inhibitors (Allosteric): CTP [Zhang91, Hoover83, Weitzman66, Gerhart62] Inhibitors (Competitive): succinate [Changeux68, Comment 5], N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate [Collins71, Comment 6]

Primary Physiological Regulators of Enzyme Activity: ATP, CTP

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of aspartate carbamoyltransferase, PyrB subunit with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Cleavage-of-Initial-Methionine 1
Inferred from experiment[UniProt15, Molloy98, Link97, Konigsberg83]
UniProt: Removed.
Chain 2 -> 311
Author statement[UniProt15]
UniProt: Aspartate carbamoyltransferase catalytic chain.
Sequence-Conflict 61
Inferred by curator[Konigsberg83, Hoover83, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1 and 6; AA sequence).
Sequence-Conflict 87
Inferred by curator[Konigsberg83, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 6; AA sequence).
Sequence-Conflict 91
Inferred by curator[Konigsberg83, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 6; AA sequence).
Sequence-Conflict 130
Inferred by curator[Konigsberg83, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 6; AA sequence).
Sequence-Conflict 150
Inferred by curator[Schachman84, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 2; AAA24476).
Acetylation-Modification 165
Inferred from experiment[Yu08]
Acetylation-Modification 179
Inferred from experiment[Yu08]
Sequence-Conflict 196
Inferred by curator[Burland95, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 3; AAA97142).
Sequence-Conflict 221
Inferred by curator[Konigsberg83, Hoover83, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1 and 6; AA sequence).
Sequence-Conflict 257
Inferred by curator[Konigsberg83, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 6; AA sequence).
Sequence-Conflict 260 -> 262
Inferred by curator[Konigsberg83, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 6; AA sequence).
Sequence-Conflict 297
Inferred by curator[Hoover83, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; AAA24474).

Sequence Pfam Features

Protein sequence of aspartate carbamoyltransferase, PyrB subunit with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Pfam PF02729 8 -> 148
Inferred by computational analysis[Finn14]
OTCace_N : Aspartate/ornithine carbamoyltransferase, carbamoyl-P binding domain
Pfam PF00185 155 -> 303
Inferred by computational analysis[Finn14]
OTCace : Aspartate/ornithine carbamoyltransferase, Asp/Orn binding domain

Gene Local Context (not to scale -- see Genome Browser for correct scale)

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b4245 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10805; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Alam04: Alam N, Stieglitz KA, Caban MD, Gourinath S, Tsuruta H, Kantrowitz ER (2004). "240s loop interactions stabilize the T state of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase." J Biol Chem 279(22);23302-10. PMID: 15014067

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Burland95: Burland V, Plunkett G, Sofia HJ, Daniels DL, Blattner FR (1995). "Analysis of the Escherichia coli genome VI: DNA sequence of the region from 92.8 through 100 minutes." Nucleic Acids Res 23(12);2105-19. PMID: 7610040

Changeux68: Changeux JP, Gerhart JC, Schachman HK (1968). "Allosteric interactions in aspartate transcarbamylase. I. Binding of specific ligands to the native enzyme and its isolated subunits." Biochemistry 7(2);531-8. PMID: 4868539

Collins71: Collins KD, Stark GR (1971). "Aspartate transcarbamylase. Interaction with the transition state analogue N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate." J Biol Chem 1971;246(21);6599-605. PMID: 4943676

Coudray09: Coudray L, Pennebaker AF, Montchamp JL (2009). "Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of aspartate transcarbamoylase inhibitors." Bioorg Med Chem 17(22);7680-9. PMID: 19828320

Coudray09a: Coudray L, Kantrowitz ER, Montchamp JL (2009). "Submicromolar phosphinic inhibitors of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase." Bioorg Med Chem Lett 19(3);900-2. PMID: 19097895

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Donahue94: Donahue JP, Turnbough CL (1994). "Nucleotide-specific transcriptional pausing in the pyrBI leader region of Escherichia coli K-12." J Biol Chem 1994;269(27);18185-91. PMID: 7517939

Eldo06: Eldo J, Cardia JP, O'Day EM, Xia J, Tsuruta H, Kantrowitz ER (2006). "N-phosphonacetyl-L-isoasparagine a potent and specific inhibitor of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase." J Med Chem 49(20);5932-8. PMID: 17004708

Eldo07: Eldo J, Heng S, Kantrowitz ER (2007). "Design, synthesis, and bioactivity of novel inhibitors of E. coli aspartate transcarbamoylase." Bioorg Med Chem Lett 17(7);2086-90. PMID: 17336518

England94: England P, Leconte C, Tauc P, Herve G (1994). "Apparent cooperativity for carbamoylphosphate in Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase only reflects cooperativity for aspartate." Eur J Biochem 222(3);775-80. PMID: 8026491

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Fetler02: Fetler L, Tauc P, Baker DP, Macol CP, Kantrowitz ER, Vachette P (2002). "Replacement of Asp-162 by Ala prevents the cooperative transition by the substrates while enhancing the effect of the allosteric activator ATP on E. coli aspartate transcarbamoylase." Protein Sci 11(5);1074-81. PMID: 11967364

Finn14: Finn RD, Bateman A, Clements J, Coggill P, Eberhardt RY, Eddy SR, Heger A, Hetherington K, Holm L, Mistry J, Sonnhammer EL, Tate J, Punta M (2014). "Pfam: the protein families database." Nucleic Acids Res 42(Database issue);D222-30. PMID: 24288371

Gaudet10: Gaudet P, Livstone M, Thomas P (2010). "Annotation inferences using phylogenetic trees." PMID: 19578431

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

Gerhart62: Gerhart JC, Pardee AB (1962). "The enzymology of control by feedback inhibition." J Biol Chem 237;891-6. PMID: 13897943

Gerhart65: Gerhart JC, Schachman HK (1965). "Distinct subunits for the regulation and catalytic activity of aspartate transcarbamylase." Biochemistry 4(6);1054-62. PMID: 5320387

Gerhart67: Gerhart JC, Holoubek H (1967). "The purification of aspartate transcarbamylase of Escherichia coli and separation of its protein subunits." J Biol Chem 242(12);2886-92. PMID: 5338508

Gerhart68: Gerhart JC, Schachman HK (1968). "Allosteric interactions in aspartate transcarbamylase. II. Evidence for different conformational states of the protein in the presence and absence of specific ligands." Biochemistry 7(2);538-52. PMID: 4868540

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Helmstaedt01: Helmstaedt K, Krappmann S, Braus GH (2001). "Allosteric regulation of catalytic activity: Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase versus yeast chorismate mutase." Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 65(3);404-21, table of contents. PMID: 11528003

Helmward89: Helmward Z "Handbook of Enzyme Inhibitors. 2nd, revised and enlarged edition." Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany ; New York, NY, USA , 1989.

Heng06: Heng S, Stieglitz KA, Eldo J, Xia J, Cardia JP, Kantrowitz ER (2006). "T-state inhibitors of E. coli aspartate transcarbamoylase that prevent the allosteric transition." Biochemistry 45(33);10062-71. PMID: 16906764

Herve04: Herve G, Schmitt B, Serre V (2004). "Cooperativity and high pressure: stabilization of the R conformation of the allosteric aspartate transcarbamylase under the influence of pressure." Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 50(4);347-52. PMID: 15529744

Hoover83: Hoover TA, Roof WD, Foltermann KF, O'Donovan GA, Bencini DA, Wild JR (1983). "Nucleotide sequence of the structural gene (pyrB) that encodes the catalytic polypeptide of aspartate transcarbamoylase of Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1983;80(9);2462-6. PMID: 6302686

Howlett77: Howlett GJ, Blackburn MN, Compton JG, Schachman HK (1977). "Allosteric regulation of aspartate transcarbamoylase. Analysis of the structural and functional behavior in terms of a two-state model." Biochemistry 16(23);5091-100. PMID: 334257

Huang04: Huang J, Lipscomb WN (2004). "Products in the T-state of aspartate transcarbamylase: crystal structure of the phosphate and N-carbamyl-L-aspartate ligated enzyme." Biochemistry 43(21);6422-6. PMID: 15157076

Huang04a: Huang J, Lipscomb WN (2004). "Aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) of Escherichia coli: a new crystalline R-state bound to PALA, or to product analogues citrate and phosphate." Biochemistry 43(21);6415-21. PMID: 15157075

Huang06: Huang J, Lipscomb WN (2006). "T-state active site of aspartate transcarbamylase: crystal structure of the carbamyl phosphate and L-alanosine ligated enzyme." Biochemistry 45(2);346-52. PMID: 16401065

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Jin00: Jin L, Stec B, Kantrowitz ER (2000). "A cis-proline to alanine mutant of E. coli aspartate transcarbamoylase: kinetic studies and three-dimensional crystal structures." Biochemistry 39(27);8058-66. PMID: 10891088

Jin99: Jin L, Stec B, Lipscomb WN, Kantrowitz ER (1999). "Insights into the mechanisms of catalysis and heterotropic regulation of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase based upon a structure of the enzyme complexed with the bisubstrate analogue N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate at 2.1 A." Proteins 37(4);729-42. PMID: 10651286

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Kantrowitz12: Kantrowitz ER (2012). "Allostery and cooperativity in Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase." Arch Biochem Biophys 519(2);81-90. PMID: 22198283

Kantrowitz88: Kantrowitz ER, Lipscomb WN (1988). "Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase: the relation between structure and function." Science 241(4866);669-74. PMID: 3041592

Kantrowitz90: Kantrowitz ER, Lipscomb WN (1990). "Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase: the molecular basis for a concerted allosteric transition." Trends Biochem Sci 15(2);53-9. PMID: 2186515

Ke84: Ke HM, Honzatko RB, Lipscomb WN (1984). "Structure of unligated aspartate carbamoyltransferase of Escherichia coli at 2.6-A resolution." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1984;81(13);4037-40. PMID: 6377306

Konigsberg83: Konigsberg WH, Henderson L (1983). "Amino acid sequence of the catalytic subunit of aspartate transcarbamoylase from Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 80(9);2467-71. PMID: 6341995

Lasserre06: Lasserre JP, Beyne E, Pyndiah S, Lapaillerie D, Claverol S, Bonneu M (2006). "A complexomic study of Escherichia coli using two-dimensional blue native/SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis." Electrophoresis 27(16);3306-21. PMID: 16858726

Link97: Link AJ, Robison K, Church GM (1997). "Comparing the predicted and observed properties of proteins encoded in the genome of Escherichia coli K-12." Electrophoresis 18(8);1259-313. PMID: 9298646

LopezCampistrou05: Lopez-Campistrous A, Semchuk P, Burke L, Palmer-Stone T, Brokx SJ, Broderick G, Bottorff D, Bolch S, Weiner JH, Ellison MJ (2005). "Localization, annotation, and comparison of the Escherichia coli K-12 proteome under two states of growth." Mol Cell Proteomics 4(8);1205-9. PMID: 15911532

Macol01: Macol CP, Tsuruta H, Stec B, Kantrowitz ER (2001). "Direct structural evidence for a concerted allosteric transition in Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase." Nat Struct Biol 8(5);423-6. PMID: 11323717

Macol02: Macol CP, Tsuruta H, Kantrowitz ER (2002). "Importance of domain closure for the catalysis and regulation of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase." J Biol Chem 277(30);26852-7. PMID: 12016227

Mendes10: Mendes KR, Kantrowitz ER (2010). "The pathway of product release from the R state of aspartate transcarbamoylase." J Mol Biol 401(5);940-8. PMID: 20620149

Mendes10a: Mendes KR, Kantrowitz ER (2010). "A cooperative Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase without regulatory subunits." Biochemistry 49(35);7694-703. PMID: 20681545

Mendes10b: Mendes KR, Martinez JA, Kantrowitz ER (2010). "Asymmetric allosteric signaling in aspartate transcarbamoylase." ACS Chem Biol 5(5);499-506. PMID: 20210358

Molloy98: Molloy MP, Herbert BR, Walsh BJ, Tyler MI, Traini M, Sanchez JC, Hochstrasser DF, Williams KL, Gooley AA (1998). "Extraction of membrane proteins by differential solubilization for separation using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis." Electrophoresis 19(5);837-44. PMID: 9629924

Monaco78: Monaco HL, Crawford JL, Lipscomb WN (1978). "Three-dimensional structures of aspartate carbamoyltransferase from Escherichia coli and of its complex with cytidine triphosphate." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1978;75(11);5276-80. PMID: 364472

Neidhardt96: Neidhardt FC, Curtiss III R, Ingraham JL, Lin ECC, Low Jr KB, Magasanik B, Reznikoff WS, Riley M, Schaechter M, Umbarger HE "Escherichia coli and Salmonella, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Second Edition." American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1996.

Nowlan85: Nowlan SF, Kantrowitz ER (1985). "Superproduction and rapid purification of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase and its catalytic subunit under extreme derepression of the pyrimidine pathway." J Biol Chem 1985;260(27);14712-6. PMID: 3902838

Patrick07: Patrick WM, Quandt EM, Swartzlander DB, Matsumura I (2007). "Multicopy suppression underpins metabolic evolvability." Mol Biol Evol 24(12);2716-22. PMID: 17884825

Rabinowitz08: Rabinowitz JD, Hsiao JJ, Gryncel KR, Kantrowitz ER, Feng XJ, Li G, Rabitz H (2008). "Dissecting enzyme regulation by multiple allosteric effectors: nucleotide regulation of aspartate transcarbamoylase." Biochemistry 47(21);5881-8. PMID: 18454556

Rajagopala14: Rajagopala SV, Sikorski P, Kumar A, Mosca R, Vlasblom J, Arnold R, Franca-Koh J, Pakala SB, Phanse S, Ceol A, Hauser R, Siszler G, Wuchty S, Emili A, Babu M, Aloy P, Pieper R, Uetz P (2014). "The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli." Nat Biotechnol 32(3);285-90. PMID: 24561554

Roof82: Roof WD, Foltermann KF, Wild JR (1982). "The organization and regulation of the pyrBI operon in E. coli includes a rho-independent attenuator sequence." Mol Gen Genet 187(3);391-400. PMID: 6294470

Rosenbusch71: Rosenbusch JP, Weber K (1971). "Subunit structure of aspartate transcarbamylase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 246(6);1644-57. PMID: 4926546

Schachman84: Schachman HK, Pauza CD, Navre M, Karels MJ, Wu L, Yang YR (1984). "Location of amino acid alterations in mutants of aspartate transcarbamoylase: Structural aspects of interallelic complementation." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81(1);115-9. PMID: 6364131

Schachman88: Schachman HK (1988). "Can a simple model account for the allosteric transition of aspartate transcarbamoylase?." J Biol Chem 263(35);18583-6. PMID: 3058687

Silver83: Silver RS, Daigneault JP, Teague PD, Kantrowitz ER (1983). "Analysis of two purified mutants of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase with single amino acid substitutions." J Mol Biol 1983;168(4);729-45. PMID: 6350607

Stieglitz04: Stieglitz K, Stec B, Baker DP, Kantrowitz ER (2004). "Monitoring the transition from the T to the R state in E.coli aspartate transcarbamoylase by X-ray crystallography: crystal structures of the E50A mutant enzyme in four distinct allosteric states." J Mol Biol 341(3);853-68. PMID: 15288791

Stieglitz05: Stieglitz KA, Dusinberre KJ, Cardia JP, Tsuruta H, Kantrowitz ER (2005). "Structure of the E.coli aspartate transcarbamoylase trapped in the middle of the catalytic cycle." J Mol Biol 352(2);478-86. PMID: 16120448

Stieglitz05a: Stieglitz KA, Pastra-Landis SC, Xia J, Tsuruta H, Kantrowitz ER (2005). "A single amino acid substitution in the active site of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase prevents the allosteric transition." J Mol Biol 349(2);413-23. PMID: 15890205

Stieglitz09: Stieglitz KA, Xia J, Kantrowitz ER (2009). "The first high pH structure of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase." Proteins 74(2);318-27. PMID: 18618694

Tolonen11: Tolonen E, Bueno B, Kulshreshta S, Cieplak P, Argaez M, Velazquez L, Stec B (2011). "Allosteric transition and binding of small molecule effectors causes curvature change in central β-sheets of selected enzymes." J Mol Model 17(4);899-911. PMID: 20602244

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UniProtGOA12: UniProt-GOA (2012). "Gene Ontology annotation based on UniPathway vocabulary mapping."

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Wang05c: Wang J, Stieglitz KA, Cardia JP, Kantrowitz ER (2005). "Structural basis for ordered substrate binding and cooperativity in aspartate transcarbamoylase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(25);8881-6. PMID: 15951418

Wang07c: Wang J, Eldo J, Kantrowitz ER (2007). "Structural model of the R state of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase with substrates bound." J Mol Biol 371(5);1261-73. PMID: 17603076

Wang08: Wang Q, Xia J, Guallar V, Krilov G, Kantrowitz ER (2008). "Mechanism of thermal decomposition of carbamoyl phosphate and its stabilization by aspartate and ornithine transcarbamoylases." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(44);16918-23. PMID: 18971327

Weitzman66: Weitzman PD, Wilson IB (1966). "Studies on aspartate transcarbamylase and its allosteric interaction." J Biol Chem 241(23);5481-8. PMID: 5333198

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Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Donahue90: Donahue JP, Turnbough CL (1990). "Characterization of transcriptional initiation from promoters P1 and P2 of the pyrBI operon of Escherichia coli K12." J Biol Chem 1990;265(31);19091-9. PMID: 1699940

Jensen88: Jensen KF (1988). "Hyper-regulation of pyr gene expression in Escherichia coli cells with slow ribosomes. Evidence for RNA polymerase pausing in vivo?." Eur J Biochem 175(3);587-93. PMID: 3044790

Levin85: Levin HL, Schachman HK (1985). "Regulation of aspartate transcarbamoylase synthesis in Escherichia coli: analysis of deletion mutations in the promoter region of the pyrBI operon." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82(14);4643-7. PMID: 2991885

Liu89a: Liu CG, Turnbough CL (1989). "Multiple control mechanisms for pyrimidine-mediated regulation of pyrBI operon expression in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 171(6);3337-42. PMID: 2656651

Liu93b: Liu C, Donahue JP, Heath LS, Turnbough CL (1993). "Genetic evidence that promoter P2 is the physiologically significant promoter for the pyrBI operon of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 175(8);2363-9. PMID: 8468295

Roland85: Roland KL, Powell FE, Turnbough CL (1985). "Role of translation and attenuation in the control of pyrBI operon expression in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 163(3);991-9. PMID: 3928602

Turnbough83: Turnbough CL, Hicks KL, Donahue JP (1983). "Attenuation control of pyrBI operon expression in Escherichia coli K-12." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 80(2);368-72. PMID: 6300835

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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