If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Amino Acids Biosynthesis → Proteinogenic Amino Acids Biosynthesis → L-valine Biosynthesis|
The pathway of valine biosynthesis is a four-step pathway that shares all of its steps with the parallel pathway of isoleucine biosynthesis. These entwined pathways are part of the superpathway of branched amino acid biosynthesis, that generates not only isoleucine and valine, but also leucine.
As a consequence of having several of its component enzymes involved in the synthesis of three different amino acids, the pathway of isoleucine biosynthesis is subject to regulation by all three amino acids. The first step in the pathway is primarily inhibited by valine, along with inhibition by isoleucine and leucine. The potential disruption this might cause to the parallel isoleucine biosynthesis pathway step using the same enzymes is resolved by upregulation of an earlier step that is unique to isoleucine biosynthesis, as explained in the L-isoleucine biosynthesis I (from threonine) summary. In this way, valine biosynthesis can be regulated independently of isoleucine biosynthesis, despite all four valine biosynthesis enzymes also participating in isoleucine biosynthesis.
Superpathways: superpathway of branched amino acid biosynthesis
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Burns95a: Burns DM, Burger MJ, Beacham IR (1995). "Silent genes in bacteria: the previously designated 'cryptic' ilvHI locus of 'Salmonella typhimurium LT2' is active in natural isolates." FEMS Microbiol Lett 131(2);167-72. PMID: 7557326
Dailey86: Dailey FE, Cronan JE (1986). "Acetohydroxy acid synthase I, a required enzyme for isoleucine and valine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12 during growth on acetate as the sole carbon source." J Bacteriol 1986;165(2);453-60. PMID: 3511034
Daniels92: Daniels DL, Plunkett G, Burland V, Blattner FR (1992). "Analysis of the Escherichia coli genome: DNA sequence of the region from 84.5 to 86.5 minutes." Science 1992;257(5071);771-8. PMID: 1379743
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Eoyang86: Eoyang L, Silverman PM (1986). "Role of small subunit (IlvN polypeptide) of acetohydroxyacid synthase I from Escherichia coli K-12 in sensitivity of the enzyme to valine inhibition." J Bacteriol 166(3);901-4. PMID: 3011751
Favre76: Favre R, Wiater A, Puppo S, Iaccarino M (1976). "Expression of a valine-resistant acetolactate synthase activity mediated by the ilv O and ilv G genes of Escherichia coli K-12." Mol Gen Genet 143(3);243-52. PMID: 765758
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