Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: D-serine degradation
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: D-serine degradation

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for D-serine degradation

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationAmino Acids DegradationOther Amino Acids DegradationD-Amino Acids Degradation

E. coli is able to utilize D-serine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen for growth [Bloom75]. D-serine also has a bacteriostatic effect due to its effect on the biosynthesis of L-serine and pantothenate [Cosloy73]. Detoxification of D-serine and its utilization as a carbon and nitrogen source are accomplished by a single enzyme, D-serine ammonia-lyase [McFall64]. D-serine ammonia-lyase catalyzes the deamination of D-serine to form pyruvate and ammonia; expression of the enzyme is induced by D-serine [Pardee55, McFall64, McFall64a].

Recently, it has been shown that the ability to utilize and/or detoxify D-serine plays a role in pathogenesis [Roesch03, Moritz06, Anfora07, Sakinc09].

Created 06-Jan-2012 by Keseler I, SRI International


Anfora07: Anfora AT, Haugen BJ, Roesch P, Redford P, Welch RA (2007). "Roles of serine accumulation and catabolism in the colonization of the murine urinary tract by Escherichia coli CFT073." Infect Immun 75(11);5298-304. PMID: 17785472

Bloom75: Bloom FR, McFall E (1975). "Isolation and characterization of D-serine deaminase constitutive mutants by utilization of D-serine as sole carbon or nitrogen source." J Bacteriol 121(3);1078-84. PMID: 1090588

Cosloy73: Cosloy SD, McFall E (1973). "Metabolism of D-serine in Escherichia coli K-12: mechanism of growth inhibition." J Bacteriol 114(2);685-94. PMID: 4574697

McFall64: McFall E (1964). "Genetic structure of the D-serine deaminase system of Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 9;746-53. PMID: 14216615

McFall64a: McFall E (1964). "Pleiotropic mutations in the D-serine deaminase system of Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 9;754-62. PMID: 14216616

Moritz06: Moritz RL, Welch RA (2006). "The Escherichia coli argW-dsdCXA genetic island is highly variable, and E. coli K1 strains commonly possess two copies of dsdCXA." J Clin Microbiol 44(11);4038-48. PMID: 17088369

Pardee55: Pardee AB, Prestidge LS (1955). "Induced formation of serine and threonine deaminases by Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 70(6);667-74. PMID: 13271312

Roesch03: Roesch PL, Redford P, Batchelet S, Moritz RL, Pellett S, Haugen BJ, Blattner FR, Welch RA (2003). "Uropathogenic Escherichia coli use d-serine deaminase to modulate infection of the murine urinary tract." Mol Microbiol 49(1);55-67. PMID: 12823810

Sakinc09: Sakinc T, Michalski N, Kleine B, Gatermann SG (2009). "The uropathogenic species Staphylococcus saprophyticus tolerates a high concentration of D-serine." FEMS Microbiol Lett 299(1);60-4. PMID: 19674114

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Bloom75a: Bloom FR, McFall E, Young MC, Carothers AM (1975). "Positive control in the D-serine deaminase system of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 121(3);1092-101. PMID: 1090589

Bloom75b: Bloom FR (1975). "Isolation and characterization of catabolite-resistant mutants in the D-serine deaminase system of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 121(3);1085-91. PMID: 163811

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Carothers80: Carothers AM, McFall E, Palchaudhuri S (1980). "Physical mapping of the Escherichia coli D-serine deaminase region: contiguity of the dsd structural and regulatory genes." J Bacteriol 1980;142(1);174-84. PMID: 6246062

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Dowhan70: Dowhan W, Snell EE (1970). "D-serine dehydratase from Escherichia coli. II. Analytical studies and subunit structure." J Biol Chem 245(18);4618-28. PMID: 4917239

Dowhan70a: Dowhan W, Snell EE (1970). "D-serine dehydratase from Escherichia coli. 3. Resolution of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and coenzyme specificity." J Biol Chem 245(18);4629-35. PMID: 4917240

Dupourque66: Dupourque D, Newton WA, Snell EE (1966). "Purification and properties of D-serine dehydrase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1966;241(5);1233-8. PMID: 5327100

Federiuk81: Federiuk CS, Shafer JA (1981). "Inactivation of D-serine dehydratase by alkylamines via a transimination of enzyme-linked cofactor." J Biol Chem 256(14);7416-23. PMID: 7019208

Federiuk83: Federiuk CS, Bayer R, Shafer JA (1983). "Characterization of the catalytic pathway for D-serine dehydratase. Evidence for variation of the rate-determining step with substrate structure." J Biol Chem 258(9);5379-85. PMID: 6406501

Gale38: Gale EF, Stephenson M (1938). "Factors influencing bacterial deamination: Factors influencing the activity of dl-serine deaminase in Bacterium coli." Biochem J 32(2);392-404. PMID: 16746632

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Heincz75: Heincz MC, McFall E (1975). "N-terminal amino acid sequences of D-serine deaminases of wild-type and operator-constitutive strains of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 123(3);1163-8. PMID: 1099073

Heincz76: Heincz MC, McFall E (1976). "Specific in vivo cleavage of D-serine deaminase and properties of tetrameric polypeptide aggregates of the fragments." J Bacteriol 126(1);132-9. PMID: 770418

Heincz78: Heincz MC, McFall E (1978). "Role of small molecules in regulation of D-serine deaminase synthesis." J Bacteriol 136(1);104-10. PMID: 213417

Heincz78a: Heincz MC, McFall E (1978). "Role of the dsdC activator in regulation of D-serine deaminase synthesis." J Bacteriol 136(1);96-103. PMID: 213419

Heincz78b: Heincz MC, Kelker NE, McFall E (1978). "Positive control of D-serine deaminase synthesis in vitro." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 75(4);1695-9. PMID: 347444

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Thu May 5, 2016, biocyc14.