Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: NarX Two-Component Signal Transduction System, nitrate dependent
Inferred by computational analysisInferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: NarX Two-Component Signal Transduction System, nitrate dependent

Diagram Key:

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for NarX Two-Component Signal Transduction System, nitrate dependent

Superclasses: Signal transduction pathways

In E.coli K-12 the two paralogous two-component systems NarXL and NarQP collaborate to control anaerobic respiratory gene expression in response to nitrate and nitrite. NarX and NarQ are the sensor histidine kinases, NarL and NarP the response regulators. The systems have a discriminatory response to nitrate and nitrite and there is cross talk between the sensor kinases and the response regulators. In this way a complex response to the dynamic ratio of nitrate and nitrite during anaerobiosis is mediated.

Reviews: [Stewart93, Stewart94, Stewart03a]

Created 19-Sep-2010 by Mackie A, Macquarie University


Kalman89: Kalman LV, Gunsalus RP (1989). "Identification of a second gene involved in global regulation of fumarate reductase and other nitrate-controlled genes for anaerobic respiration in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 171(7);3810-6. PMID: 2544557

Nohno89: Nohno T, Noji S, Taniguchi S, Saito T (1989). "The narX and narL genes encoding the nitrate-sensing regulators of Escherichia coli are homologous to a family of prokaryotic two-component regulatory genes." Nucleic Acids Res 1989;17(8);2947-57. PMID: 2657652

Stewart03a: Stewart V (2003). "Biochemical Society Special Lecture. Nitrate- and nitrite-responsive sensors NarX and NarQ of proteobacteria." Biochem Soc Trans 31(Pt 1);1-10. PMID: 12546643

Stewart89: Stewart V, Parales J, Merkel SM (1989). "Structure of genes narL and narX of the nar (nitrate reductase) locus in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 1989;171(4);2229-34. PMID: 2649492

Stewart93: Stewart V (1993). "Nitrate regulation of anaerobic respiratory gene expression in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 1993;9(3);425-34. PMID: 8412692

Stewart94: Stewart V (1994). "Dual interacting two-component regulatory systems mediate nitrate- and nitrite-regulated gene expression in Escherichia coli." Res Microbiol 145(5-6);450-4. PMID: 7855431

Yamamoto05: Yamamoto K, Hirao K, Oshima T, Aiba H, Utsumi R, Ishihama A (2005). "Functional characterization in vitro of all two-component signal transduction systems from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 280(2);1448-56. PMID: 15522865

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Baikalov96: Baikalov I, Schroder I, Kaczor-Grzeskowiak M, Grzeskowiak K, Gunsalus RP, Dickerson RE (1996). "Structure of the Escherichia coli response regulator NarL." Biochemistry 35(34);11053-61. PMID: 8780507

Baikalov98: Baikalov I, Schroder I, Kaczor-Grzeskowiak M, Cascio D, Gunsalus RP, Dickerson RE (1998). "NarL dimerization? Suggestive evidence from a new crystal form." Biochemistry 37(11);3665-76. PMID: 9521685

Browning00: Browning DF, Cole JA, Busby SJ (2000). "Suppression of FNR-dependent transcription activation at the Escherichia coli nir promoter by Fis, IHF and H-NS: modulation of transcription initiation by a complex nucleo-protein assembly." Mol Microbiol 37(5);1258-69. PMID: 10972841

Browning02: Browning DF, Beatty CM, Wolfe AJ, Cole JA, Busby SJ (2002). "Independent regulation of the divergent Escherichia coli nrfA and acsP1 promoters by a nucleoprotein assembly at a shared regulatory region." Mol Microbiol 43(3);687-701. PMID: 11929525

Browning04: Browning DF, Cole JA, Busby SJ (2004). "Transcription activation by remodelling of a nucleoprotein assembly: the role of NarL at the FNR-dependent Escherichia coli nir promoter." Mol Microbiol 53(1);203-15. PMID: 15225315

Browning05: Browning DF, Grainger DC, Beatty CM, Wolfe AJ, Cole JA, Busby SJ (2005). "Integration of three signals at the Escherichia coli nrf promoter: a role for Fis protein in catabolite repression." Mol Microbiol 57(2);496-510. PMID: 15978080

Browning06: Browning DF, Lee DJ, Wolfe AJ, Cole JA, Busby SJ (2006). "The Escherichia coli K-12 NarL and NarP proteins insulate the nrf promoter from the effects of integration host factor." J Bacteriol 188(21);7449-56. PMID: 16936015

Cavicchioli96: Cavicchioli R, Chiang RC, Kalman LV, Gunsalus RP (1996). "Role of the periplasmic domain of the Escherichia coli NarX sensor-transmitter protein in nitrate-dependent signal transduction and gene regulation." Mol Microbiol 1996;21(5);901-11. PMID: 8885262

Chiang97: Chiang RC, Cavicchioli R, Gunsalus RP (1997). "'Locked-on' and 'locked-off' signal transduction mutations in the periplasmic domain of the Escherichia coli NarQ and NarX sensors affect nitrate- and nitrite-dependent regulation by NarL and NarP." Mol Microbiol 1997;24(5);1049-60. PMID: 9220011

Constantinidou06: Constantinidou C, Hobman JL, Griffiths L, Patel MD, Penn CW, Cole JA, Overton TW (2006). "A reassessment of the FNR regulon and transcriptomic analysis of the effects of nitrate, nitrite, NarXL, and NarQP as Escherichia coli K12 adapts from aerobic to anaerobic growth." J Biol Chem 281(8);4802-15. PMID: 16377617

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

Darwin95: Darwin AJ, Stewart V (1995). "Nitrate and nitrite regulation of the Fnr-dependent aeg-46.5 promoter of Escherichia coli K-12 is mediated by competition between homologous response regulators (NarL and NarP) for a common DNA-binding site." J Mol Biol 1995;251(1);15-29. PMID: 7643383

Darwin96: Darwin AJ, Li J, Stewart V (1996). "Analysis of nitrate regulatory protein NarL-binding sites in the fdnG and narG operon control regions of Escherichia coli K-12." Mol Microbiol 1996;20(3);621-32. PMID: 8736541

Darwin97: Darwin AJ, Tyson KL, Busby SJ, Stewart V (1997). "Differential regulation by the homologous response regulators NarL and NarP of Escherichia coli K-12 depends on DNA binding site arrangement." Mol Microbiol 1997;25(3);583-95. PMID: 9302020

Darwin98: Darwin AJ, Ziegelhoffer EC, Kiley PJ, Stewart V (1998). "Fnr, NarP, and NarL regulation of Escherichia coli K-12 napF (periplasmic nitrate reductase) operon transcription in vitro." J Bacteriol 1998;180(16);4192-8. PMID: 9696769

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Egan91: Egan SM, Stewart V (1991). "Mutational analysis of nitrate regulatory gene narL in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 1991;173(14);4424-32. PMID: 2066339

Eldridge02: Eldridge AM, Kang HS, Johnson E, Gunsalus R, Dahlquist FW (2002). "Effect of phosphorylation on the interdomain interaction of the response regulator, NarL." Biochemistry 41(51);15173-80. PMID: 12484754

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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