Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Signal transduction pathways|
In Escherichia coli K-12 the Rcs proteins are involved in a complex phosphorelay system that is believed to play a role in controlling the temporal expression of genes related to biofilm formation and may have a broader role as a global regulator controlling cell surface composition in response to changing environments. Numerous conditions that activate the Rcs phosphorelay have been observed including osmotic shock, dessication and perturbations in the integrity of the cell membrane. The Rcs regulon is large and includes genes for colonic acid capsule synthesis, cell division, motility and membrane lipoproteins.
The Rcs phosphorelay involves three separate proteins: RcsC, RcsD and RcsB. Phosphate transfer occurs from the sensor kinase RcsC which autophosphorylates in response to a signal, to RcsD and then to the cytoplasmic transcription factor RcsB. RcsB, either alone or in combination with RscA, activates transcription from a wide range of genes, including those for capsule synthesis and some membrane proteins, and it negatively regulates flagella synthesis.
The Rcs pathway responds to outer membrane and peptidoglycan damage and this response involves the accessory proteins RcsF and IgaA [Laubacher08, Evans13]. IgaA is an essential inner membrane protein that inhibits the Rcs system [Cho14]; RcsF is an outer membrane lipoprotein that turns on the signaling cascade upon envelope stress. During outer membrane or peptidoglycan related stress RcsF activates the signaling pathway by interacting with the inner membrane protein, IgaA - likely alleviating the inhibitory effect that this latter protein has on the Rcs phosphorelay. In unstressed cells, the Bam machinery continuously funnels RcsF through OmpA to form a surface exposed complex - in this model outer membrane or peptidoglycan stress disrupts Bam activity and newly synthesized RcsF is exposed to the periplasm where it binds IgaA and triggers the Rcs phosphorelay [Cho14].
rcs: regulator of capsular synthesis
Cho14: Cho SH, Szewczyk J, Pesavento C, Zietek M, Banzhaf M, Roszczenko P, Asmar A, Laloux G, Hov AK, Leverrier P, Van der Henst C, Vertommen D, Typas A, Collet JF (2014). "Detecting envelope stress by monitoring β-barrel assembly." Cell 159(7);1652-64. PMID: 25525882
Evans13: Evans KL, Kannan S, Li G, de Pedro MA, Young KD (2013). "Eliminating a set of four penicillin binding proteins triggers the Rcs phosphorelay and Cpx stress responses in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 195(19);4415-24. PMID: 23893115
Laubacher08: Laubacher ME, Ades SE (2008). "The Rcs phosphorelay is a cell envelope stress response activated by peptidoglycan stress and contributes to intrinsic antibiotic resistance." J Bacteriol 190(6);2065-74. PMID: 18192383
Ranjit13: Ranjit DK, Young KD (2013). "The Rcs stress response and accessory envelope proteins are required for de novo generation of cell shape in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 195(11);2452-62. PMID: 23543719
Takeda01: Takeda S, Fujisawa Y, Matsubara M, Aiba H, Mizuno T (2001). "A novel feature of the multistep phosphorelay in Escherichia coli: a revised model of the RcsC --> YojN --> RcsB signalling pathway implicated in capsular synthesis and swarming behaviour." Mol Microbiol 40(2);440-50. PMID: 11309126
Boulanger05: Boulanger A, Francez-Charlot A, Conter A, Castanie-Cornet MP, Cam K, Gutierrez C (2005). "Multistress regulation in Escherichia coli: expression of osmB involves two independent promoters responding either to sigmaS or to the RcsCDB His-Asp phosphorelay." J Bacteriol 187(9);3282-6. PMID: 15838058
Brill88: Brill JA, Quinlan-Walshe C, Gottesman S (1988). "Fine-structure mapping and identification of two regulators of capsule synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 1988;170(6);2599-611. PMID: 2836365
Carballes99: Carballes F, Bertrand C, Bouche JP, Cam K (1999). "Regulation of Escherichia coli cell division genes ftsA and ftsZ by the two-component system rcsC-rcsB." Mol Microbiol 1999;34(3);442-50. PMID: 10564486
CastanieCornet06: Castanie-Cornet MP, Cam K, Jacq A (2006). "RcsF is an outer membrane lipoprotein involved in the RcsCDB phosphorelay signaling pathway in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(12);4264-70. PMID: 16740933
CastanieCornet07: Castanie-Cornet MP, Treffandier H, Francez-Charlot A, Gutierrez C, Cam K (2007). "The glutamate-dependent acid resistance system in Escherichia coli: essential and dual role of the His-Asp phosphorelay RcsCDB/AF." Microbiology 153(Pt 1);238-46. PMID: 17185552
Chen01a: Chen MH, Takeda S, Yamada H, Ishii Y, Yamashino T, Mizuno T (2001). "Characterization of the RcsC-->YojN-->RcsB phosphorelay signaling pathway involved in capsular synthesis in Escherichia coli." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65(10);2364-7. PMID: 11758943
DavalosGarcia01: Davalos-Garcia M, Conter A, Toesca I, Gutierrez C, Cam K (2001). "Regulation of osmC gene expression by the two-component system rcsB-rcsC in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 183(20);5870-6. PMID: 11566985
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
Dierksen96: Dierksen KP, Trempy JE (1996). "Identification of a second RcsA protein, a positive regulator of colanic acid capsular polysaccharide genes, in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 178(16);5053-6. PMID: 8759878
Ebel97: Ebel W, Vaughn GJ, Peters HK, Trempy JE (1997). "Inactivation of mdoH leads to increased expression of colanic acid capsular polysaccharide in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 179(21);6858-61. PMID: 9352941
Ebel99: Ebel W, Trempy JE (1999). "Escherichia coli RcsA, a positive activator of colanic acid capsular polysaccharide synthesis, functions to activate its own expression." J Bacteriol 1999;181(2);577-84. PMID: 9882673
Ferrieres03: Ferrieres L, Clarke DJ (2003). "The RcsC sensor kinase is required for normal biofilm formation in Escherichia coli K-12 and controls the expression of a regulon in response to growth on a solid surface." Mol Microbiol 50(5);1665-82. PMID: 14651646
Ferrieres07: Ferrieres L, Aslam SN, Cooper RM, Clarke DJ (2007). "The yjbEFGH locus in Escherichia coli K-12 is an operon encoding proteins involved in exopolysaccharide production." Microbiology 153(Pt 4);1070-80. PMID: 17379715
FrancezCharlot03: Francez-Charlot A, Laugel B, Van Gemert A, Dubarry N, Wiorowski F, Castani?-Cornet MP, Gutierrez C, Cam K (2003). "RcsCDB His-Asp phosphorelay system negatively regulates the flhDC operon in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 49(3);823-32. PMID: 12864862
FrancezCharlot05: Francez-Charlot A, Castanie-Cornet MP, Gutierrez C, Cam K (2005). "Osmotic Regulation of the Escherichia coli bdm (Biofilm-Dependent Modulation) Gene by the RcsCDB His-Asp Phosphorelay." J Bacteriol 187(11);3873-7. PMID: 15901715
Fredericks06: Fredericks CE, Shibata S, Aizawa S, Reimann SA, Wolfe AJ (2006). "Acetyl phosphate-sensitive regulation of flagellar biogenesis and capsular biosynthesis depends on the Rcs phosphorelay." Mol Microbiol 61(3);734-47. PMID: 16776655
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