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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: formate to trimethylamine N-oxide electron transfer

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Superclasses: Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy Electron Transfer
Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy Respiration Anaerobic Respiration

In the respiratory chain formed by formate dehydrogenase and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase the transfer of electrons from formate to TMAO is coupled to the generation of a proton-motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane.

Two electrons are transferred from the formate oxidation site to the TMAO reduction site by a menaquinone pool. Neither formate dehydrogenase nor TMAO reductase catalyse vectorial proton translocation however the reduction of trimethylamine N-oxide and many other N- and S-oxide compounds contributes two protons to the proton-motive force.

Two of E. coli's formate dehydrogenases, N and O, catalyse the oxidation of formate. Expression of formate dehydrogenase N (Fdh-N) is induced by anaerobiosis and the presence of nitrate [Wang03, Berg90] whereas aerobic conditions, and to a lesser extent nitrate under anaerobic conditions, induce expression of formate dehydrogenase O (Fdh-O) [Abaibou95].

There are three or four forms of TMAO reductase in E. coli, one is a constitutive form, TorZY, which has very low expression levels [Gon00]. TorAC is an inducible TMAO reductase and is expressed in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions [Ansaldi07]. TMAO is the preferred substrate for TMAO reductase [Gon00].

Created 17-Aug-2008 by Nolan L , Macquarie University


Abaibou95: Abaibou H, Pommier J, Benoit S, Giordano G, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1995). "Expression and characterization of the Escherichia coli fdo locus and a possible physiological role for aerobic formate dehydrogenase." J Bacteriol 177(24);7141-9. PMID: 8522521

Ansaldi07: Ansaldi M, Theraulaz L, Baraquet C, Panis G, Mejean V (2007). "Aerobic TMAO respiration in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 66(2);484-94. PMID: 17850256

Berg90: Berg BL, Stewart V (1990). "Structural genes for nitrate-inducible formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12." Genetics 1990;125(4);691-702. PMID: 2168848

Gon00: Gon S, Patte JC, Mejean V, Iobbi-Nivol C (2000). "The torYZ (yecK bisZ) operon encodes a third respiratory trimethylamine N-oxide reductase in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 2000;182(20);5779-86. PMID: 11004177

Wang03: Wang H, Gunsalus RP (2003). "Coordinate regulation of the Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase fdnGHI and fdhF genes in response to nitrate, nitrite, and formate: roles for NarL and NarP." J Bacteriol 185(17);5076-85. PMID: 12923080

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Barker00: Barker HC, Kinsella N, Jaspe A, Friedrich T, O'Connor CD (2000). "Formate protects stationary-phase Escherichia coli and Salmonella cells from killing by a cationic antimicrobial peptide." Mol Microbiol 35(6);1518-29. PMID: 10760151

Barrett85: Barrett EL, Kwan HS (1985). "Bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide." Annu Rev Microbiol 1985;39;131-49. PMID: 3904597

Benoit98: Benoit S, Abaibou H, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1998). "Topological analysis of the aerobic membrane-bound formate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1998;180(24);6625-34. PMID: 9852007

Berg91: Berg BL, Li J, Heider J, Stewart V (1991). "Nitrate-inducible formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12. I. Nucleotide sequence of the fdnGHI operon and evidence that opal (UGA) encodes selenocysteine." J Biol Chem 1991;266(33);22380-5. PMID: 1834669

Boonstra75: Boonstra J, Huttunen MT, Konings WN (1975). "Anaerobic transport in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles." J Biol Chem 250(17);6792-8. PMID: 1099094

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014."

Buc99: Buc J, Santini CL, Giordani R, Czjzek M, Wu LF, Giordano G (1999). "Enzymatic and physiological properties of the tungsten-substituted molybdenum TMAO reductase from Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 32(1);159-68. PMID: 10216869

Buchanan08: Buchanan G, Maillard J, Nabuurs SB, Richardson DJ, Palmer T, Sargent F (2008). "Features of a twin-arginine signal peptide required for recognition by a Tat proofreading chaperone." FEBS Lett 582(29);3979-84. PMID: 19013157

Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043

Chan09: Chan CS, Chang L, Rommens KL, Turner RJ (2009). "Differential interactions between Tat-specific redox enzyme peptides and their chaperones." J Bacteriol 191(7):2091-101. PMID: 19151138

Chan10: Chan CS, Chang L, Winstone TM, Turner RJ (2010). "Comparing system-specific chaperone interactions with their Tat dependent redox enzyme substrates." FEBS Lett 584(22);4553-8. PMID: 20974141

Collins81: Collins MD, Jones D (1981). "Distribution of isoprenoid quinone structural types in bacteria and their taxonomic implication." Microbiol Rev 45(2);316-54. PMID: 7022156

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

delCampillo96: del Campillo Campbell A, Campbell A (1996). "Alternative gene for biotin sulfoxide reduction in Escherichia coli K-12." J Mol Evol 42(2);85-90. PMID: 8919859

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Enoch74: Enoch HG, Lester RL (1974). "The role of a novel cytochrome b-containing nitrate reductase and quinone in the in vitro reconstruction of formate-nitrate reductase activity of E. coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 61(4);1234-41. PMID: 4616697

Enoch75: Enoch HG, Lester RL (1975). "The purification and properties of formate dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1975;250(17);6693-705. PMID: 1099093

Enoch82: Enoch HG, Lester RL (1982). "Formate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli." Methods Enzymol 89 Pt D;537-43. PMID: 6755185

Fujimoto12: Fujimoto N., Kosaka T., Yamada M. (2012). "Menaquinone as Well as Ubiquinone as a Crucial Component in the Escherichia coli Respiratory Chain." Chapter 10 in Chemical Biology, edited by D Ekinci, ISBN 978-953-51-0049-2.

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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