If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Electron Transfer|
|Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Respiration → Anaerobic Respiration|
In the respiratory chain formed by formate dehydrogenase and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase the transfer of electrons from formate to TMAO is coupled to the generation of a proton-motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane.
Two electrons are transferred from the formate oxidation site to the TMAO reduction site by a menaquinone pool. Neither formate dehydrogenase nor TMAO reductase catalyse vectorial proton translocation however the reduction of trimethylamine N-oxide and many other N- and S-oxide compounds contributes two protons to the proton-motive force.
Two of E. coli's formate dehydrogenases, N and O, catalyse the oxidation of formate. Expression of formate dehydrogenase N (Fdh-N) is induced by anaerobiosis and the presence of nitrate [Wang03, Berg90] whereas aerobic conditions, and to a lesser extent nitrate under anaerobic conditions, induce expression of formate dehydrogenase O (Fdh-O) [Abaibou95].
There are three or four forms of TMAO reductase in E. coli, one is a constitutive form, TorZY, which has very low expression levels [Gon00]. TorAC is an inducible TMAO reductase and is expressed in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions [Ansaldi07]. TMAO is the preferred substrate for TMAO reductase [Gon00].
Abaibou95: Abaibou H, Pommier J, Benoit S, Giordano G, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1995). "Expression and characterization of the Escherichia coli fdo locus and a possible physiological role for aerobic formate dehydrogenase." J Bacteriol 177(24);7141-9. PMID: 8522521
Gon00: Gon S, Patte JC, Mejean V, Iobbi-Nivol C (2000). "The torYZ (yecK bisZ) operon encodes a third respiratory trimethylamine N-oxide reductase in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 2000;182(20);5779-86. PMID: 11004177
Wang03: Wang H, Gunsalus RP (2003). "Coordinate regulation of the Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase fdnGHI and fdhF genes in response to nitrate, nitrite, and formate: roles for NarL and NarP." J Bacteriol 185(17);5076-85. PMID: 12923080
Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699
Barker00: Barker HC, Kinsella N, Jaspe A, Friedrich T, O'Connor CD (2000). "Formate protects stationary-phase Escherichia coli and Salmonella cells from killing by a cationic antimicrobial peptide." Mol Microbiol 35(6);1518-29. PMID: 10760151
Benoit98: Benoit S, Abaibou H, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1998). "Topological analysis of the aerobic membrane-bound formate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1998;180(24);6625-34. PMID: 9852007
Berg91: Berg BL, Li J, Heider J, Stewart V (1991). "Nitrate-inducible formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12. I. Nucleotide sequence of the fdnGHI operon and evidence that opal (UGA) encodes selenocysteine." J Biol Chem 1991;266(33);22380-5. PMID: 1834669
Buc99: Buc J, Santini CL, Giordani R, Czjzek M, Wu LF, Giordano G (1999). "Enzymatic and physiological properties of the tungsten-substituted molybdenum TMAO reductase from Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 32(1);159-68. PMID: 10216869
Buchanan08: Buchanan G, Maillard J, Nabuurs SB, Richardson DJ, Palmer T, Sargent F (2008). "Features of a twin-arginine signal peptide required for recognition by a Tat proofreading chaperone." FEBS Lett 582(29);3979-84. PMID: 19013157
Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
Enoch74: Enoch HG, Lester RL (1974). "The role of a novel cytochrome b-containing nitrate reductase and quinone in the in vitro reconstruction of formate-nitrate reductase activity of E. coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 61(4);1234-41. PMID: 4616697
Fujimoto12: Fujimoto N., Kosaka T., Yamada M. (2012). "Menaquinone as Well as Ubiquinone as a Crucial Component in the Escherichia coli Respiratory Chain." Chapter 10 in Chemical Biology, edited by D Ekinci, ISBN 978-953-51-0049-2.
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