twitter

Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: formate to trimethylamine N-oxide electron transfer

Pathway diagram: formate to trimethylamine N-oxide electron transfer

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for formate to trimethylamine N-oxide electron transfer

Superclasses: Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy Electron Transfer
Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy Respiration Anaerobic Respiration

Summary:
In the anaerobic respiratory chain formed by formate dehydrogenase and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase the transfer of electrons from formate to TMAO is coupled to the generation of a proton-motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane [Cox80, Abaibou97].

TMAO reductase does not contribute to proton potential (see review by [Simon08]); formate dehydrogenase N contributes to the generation of proton potential (H+/e- = 1) by means of a redox loop mechanism [Jormakka02] . Menaquinone (shown here) or demethylmenaquinone serves as the redox mediator during anaerobic respiration with TMAO [Wissenbach90, Wissenbach92].

E. coli K-12 contains two respiratory formate dehydrogenases. Formate dehydrogenase N is induced by anaerobiosis and the presence of nitrate [Wang03a, Berg90]. Formate dehydrogenase O (FdhO) is expressed aerobically and may be important during aerobic to anaerobic transition [Abaibou95].

In addition to the inducible TMAO reductase encoded by torCA (shown here), E. coli K-12 contains a second TMAO reductase encoded by torYZ. torYZ has low constitutive expression and is not induced by TMAO or dimethyl sulfoxide [Gon00]. TorAC is an inducible TMAO reductase and is expressed in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions [Ansaldi07].

Many early studies on anaerobic TMAO respiration were done using E. coli K-10 [Takagi81, Shimokawa79].

Reviews: [Barrett85, McCrindle05]

Credits:
Created 17-Aug-2008 by Nolan L , Macquarie University


References

Abaibou95: Abaibou H, Pommier J, Benoit S, Giordano G, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1995). "Expression and characterization of the Escherichia coli fdo locus and a possible physiological role for aerobic formate dehydrogenase." J Bacteriol 177(24);7141-9. PMID: 8522521

Abaibou97: Abaibou H, Giordano G, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1997). "Suppression of Escherichia coli formate hydrogenlyase activity by trimethylamine N-oxide is due to drainage of the inducer formate." Microbiology 143 ( Pt 8);2657-64. PMID: 9274019

Ansaldi07: Ansaldi M, Theraulaz L, Baraquet C, Panis G, Mejean V (2007). "Aerobic TMAO respiration in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 66(2);484-94. PMID: 17850256

Barrett85: Barrett EL, Kwan HS (1985). "Bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide." Annu Rev Microbiol 1985;39;131-49. PMID: 3904597

Berg90: Berg BL, Stewart V (1990). "Structural genes for nitrate-inducible formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12." Genetics 1990;125(4);691-702. PMID: 2168848

Cox80: Cox JC, Madigan MT, Favinger JL, Gest H (1980). "Redox mechanisms in "oxidant-dependent" hexose fermentation by Rhodopseudomonas capsulata." Arch Biochem Biophys 204(1);10-7. PMID: 7000002

Gon00: Gon S, Patte JC, Mejean V, Iobbi-Nivol C (2000). "The torYZ (yecK bisZ) operon encodes a third respiratory trimethylamine N-oxide reductase in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 2000;182(20);5779-86. PMID: 11004177

Jormakka02: Jormakka M, Tornroth S, Byrne B, Iwata S (2002). "Molecular basis of proton motive force generation: structure of formate dehydrogenase-N." Science 295(5561);1863-8. PMID: 11884747

McCrindle05: McCrindle SL, Kappler U, McEwan AG (2005). "Microbial dimethylsulfoxide and trimethylamine-N-oxide respiration." Adv Microb Physiol 50;147-98. PMID: 16221580

Shimokawa79: Shimokawa O, Ishimoto M (1979). "Purification and some properties of inducible tertiary amine N-oxide reductase from Escherichia coli." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1979;86(6);1709-17. PMID: 393699

Simon08: Simon J, van Spanning RJ, Richardson DJ (2008). "The organisation of proton motive and non-proton motive redox loops in prokaryotic respiratory systems." Biochim Biophys Acta 1777(12);1480-90. PMID: 18930017

Takagi81: Takagi M, Tsuchiya T, Ishimoto M (1981). "Proton translocation coupled to trimethylamine N-oxide reduction in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 148(3);762-8. PMID: 7031034

Wang03a: Wang H, Gunsalus RP (2003). "Coordinate regulation of the Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase fdnGHI and fdhF genes in response to nitrate, nitrite, and formate: roles for NarL and NarP." J Bacteriol 185(17);5076-85. PMID: 12923080

Wissenbach90: Wissenbach U, Kroger A, Unden G (1990). "The specific functions of menaquinone and demethylmenaquinone in anaerobic respiration with fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide, trimethylamine N-oxide and nitrate by Escherichia coli." Arch Microbiol 154(1);60-6. PMID: 2204318

Wissenbach92: Wissenbach U, Ternes D, Unden G (1992). "An Escherichia coli mutant containing only demethylmenaquinone, but no menaquinone: effects on fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide, trimethylamine N-oxide and nitrate respiration." Arch Microbiol 1992;158(1);68-73. PMID: 1444716

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Barker00: Barker HC, Kinsella N, Jaspe A, Friedrich T, O'Connor CD (2000). "Formate protects stationary-phase Escherichia coli and Salmonella cells from killing by a cationic antimicrobial peptide." Mol Microbiol 35(6);1518-29. PMID: 10760151

Benoit98: Benoit S, Abaibou H, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1998). "Topological analysis of the aerobic membrane-bound formate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1998;180(24);6625-34. PMID: 9852007

Berg91: Berg BL, Li J, Heider J, Stewart V (1991). "Nitrate-inducible formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12. I. Nucleotide sequence of the fdnGHI operon and evidence that opal (UGA) encodes selenocysteine." J Biol Chem 1991;266(33);22380-5. PMID: 1834669

Boxer82: Boxer D, Malcolm A, Graham A (1982). "Escherichia coli formate to nitrate respiratory pathway: structural analysis." Biochem Soc Trans 10(6);480-1. PMID: 6759195

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014." http://www.brenda-enzymes.org.

Buc99: Buc J, Santini CL, Giordani R, Czjzek M, Wu LF, Giordano G (1999). "Enzymatic and physiological properties of the tungsten-substituted molybdenum TMAO reductase from Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 32(1);159-68. PMID: 10216869

Buchanan08: Buchanan G, Maillard J, Nabuurs SB, Richardson DJ, Palmer T, Sargent F (2008). "Features of a twin-arginine signal peptide required for recognition by a Tat proofreading chaperone." FEBS Lett 582(29);3979-84. PMID: 19013157

Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043

Chan09: Chan CS, Chang L, Rommens KL, Turner RJ (2009). "Differential interactions between Tat-specific redox enzyme peptides and their chaperones." J Bacteriol 191(7):2091-101. PMID: 19151138

Chan10: Chan CS, Chang L, Winstone TM, Turner RJ (2010). "Comparing system-specific chaperone interactions with their Tat dependent redox enzyme substrates." FEBS Lett 584(22);4553-8. PMID: 20974141

Collins81: Collins MD, Jones D (1981). "Distribution of isoprenoid quinone structural types in bacteria and their taxonomic implication." Microbiol Rev 45(2);316-54. PMID: 7022156

Cotter89: Cotter PA, Gunsalus RP (1989). "Oxygen, nitrate, and molybdenum regulation of dmsABC gene expression in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 171(7);3817-23. PMID: 2544558

Cox81: Cox JC, Edwards ES, DeMoss JA (1981). "Resolution of distinct selenium-containing formate dehydrogenases from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 145(3);1317-24. PMID: 7009577

Cox81b: Cox JC, Knight R (1981). "Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase activity in chlorate-resistant or respiration-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli." FEMS Microbiology Letters 12 249-252.

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Enoch72: Enoch HG, Lester RL (1972). "Effects of molybdate, tungstate, and selenium compounds on formate dehydrogenase and other enzyme systems in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 110(3);1032-40. PMID: 4555402

Enoch74: Enoch HG, Lester RL (1974). "The role of a novel cytochrome b-containing nitrate reductase and quinone in the in vitro reconstruction of formate-nitrate reductase activity of E. coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 61(4);1234-41. PMID: 4616697

Enoch75: Enoch HG, Lester RL (1975). "The purification and properties of formate dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1975;250(17);6693-705. PMID: 1099093

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.0 on Wed Jul 29, 2015, BIOCYC13A.