Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: formate to trimethylamine N-oxide electron transfer
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: formate to trimethylamine N-oxide electron transfer

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for formate to trimethylamine N-oxide electron transfer

Superclasses: Generation of Precursor Metabolites and EnergyElectron Transfer
Generation of Precursor Metabolites and EnergyRespirationAnaerobic Respiration

In the anaerobic respiratory chain formed by formate dehydrogenase and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase the transfer of electrons from formate to TMAO is coupled to the generation of a proton-motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane [Cox80, Abaibou97].

TMAO reductase does not contribute to proton potential (see review by [Simon08]); formate dehydrogenase N contributes to the generation of proton potential (H+/e- = 1) by means of a redox loop mechanism [Jormakka02] . Menaquinone (shown here) or demethylmenaquinone serves as the redox mediator during anaerobic respiration with TMAO [Wissenbach90, Wissenbach92].

E. coli K-12 contains two respiratory formate dehydrogenases. Formate dehydrogenase N is induced by anaerobiosis and the presence of nitrate [Wang03a, Berg90]. Formate dehydrogenase O (FdhO) is expressed aerobically and may be important during aerobic to anaerobic transition [Abaibou95].

In addition to the inducible TMAO reductase encoded by torCA (shown here), E. coli K-12 contains a second TMAO reductase encoded by torYZ. torYZ has low constitutive expression and is not induced by TMAO or dimethyl sulfoxide [Gon00]. TorAC is an inducible TMAO reductase and is expressed in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions [Ansaldi07].

Many early studies on anaerobic TMAO respiration were done using E. coli K-10 [Takagi81, Shimokawa79].

Reviews: [Barrett85, McCrindle05]

Created 17-Aug-2008 by Nolan L, Macquarie University


Abaibou95: Abaibou H, Pommier J, Benoit S, Giordano G, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1995). "Expression and characterization of the Escherichia coli fdo locus and a possible physiological role for aerobic formate dehydrogenase." J Bacteriol 177(24);7141-9. PMID: 8522521

Abaibou97: Abaibou H, Giordano G, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1997). "Suppression of Escherichia coli formate hydrogenlyase activity by trimethylamine N-oxide is due to drainage of the inducer formate." Microbiology 143 ( Pt 8);2657-64. PMID: 9274019

Ansaldi07: Ansaldi M, Theraulaz L, Baraquet C, Panis G, Mejean V (2007). "Aerobic TMAO respiration in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 66(2);484-94. PMID: 17850256

Barrett85: Barrett EL, Kwan HS (1985). "Bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide." Annu Rev Microbiol 1985;39;131-49. PMID: 3904597

Berg90: Berg BL, Stewart V (1990). "Structural genes for nitrate-inducible formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12." Genetics 1990;125(4);691-702. PMID: 2168848

Cox80: Cox JC, Madigan MT, Favinger JL, Gest H (1980). "Redox mechanisms in "oxidant-dependent" hexose fermentation by Rhodopseudomonas capsulata." Arch Biochem Biophys 204(1);10-7. PMID: 7000002

Gon00: Gon S, Patte JC, Mejean V, Iobbi-Nivol C (2000). "The torYZ (yecK bisZ) operon encodes a third respiratory trimethylamine N-oxide reductase in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 2000;182(20);5779-86. PMID: 11004177

Jormakka02: Jormakka M, Tornroth S, Byrne B, Iwata S (2002). "Molecular basis of proton motive force generation: structure of formate dehydrogenase-N." Science 295(5561);1863-8. PMID: 11884747

McCrindle05: McCrindle SL, Kappler U, McEwan AG (2005). "Microbial dimethylsulfoxide and trimethylamine-N-oxide respiration." Adv Microb Physiol 50;147-98. PMID: 16221580

Shimokawa79: Shimokawa O, Ishimoto M (1979). "Purification and some properties of inducible tertiary amine N-oxide reductase from Escherichia coli." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1979;86(6);1709-17. PMID: 393699

Simon08: Simon J, van Spanning RJ, Richardson DJ (2008). "The organisation of proton motive and non-proton motive redox loops in prokaryotic respiratory systems." Biochim Biophys Acta 1777(12);1480-90. PMID: 18930017

Takagi81: Takagi M, Tsuchiya T, Ishimoto M (1981). "Proton translocation coupled to trimethylamine N-oxide reduction in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 148(3);762-8. PMID: 7031034

Wang03a: Wang H, Gunsalus RP (2003). "Coordinate regulation of the Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase fdnGHI and fdhF genes in response to nitrate, nitrite, and formate: roles for NarL and NarP." J Bacteriol 185(17);5076-85. PMID: 12923080

Wissenbach90: Wissenbach U, Kroger A, Unden G (1990). "The specific functions of menaquinone and demethylmenaquinone in anaerobic respiration with fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide, trimethylamine N-oxide and nitrate by Escherichia coli." Arch Microbiol 154(1);60-6. PMID: 2204318

Wissenbach92: Wissenbach U, Ternes D, Unden G (1992). "An Escherichia coli mutant containing only demethylmenaquinone, but no menaquinone: effects on fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide, trimethylamine N-oxide and nitrate respiration." Arch Microbiol 1992;158(1);68-73. PMID: 1444716

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Barker00: Barker HC, Kinsella N, Jaspe A, Friedrich T, O'Connor CD (2000). "Formate protects stationary-phase Escherichia coli and Salmonella cells from killing by a cationic antimicrobial peptide." Mol Microbiol 35(6);1518-29. PMID: 10760151

Benoit98: Benoit S, Abaibou H, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1998). "Topological analysis of the aerobic membrane-bound formate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1998;180(24);6625-34. PMID: 9852007

Berg91a: Berg BL, Li J, Heider J, Stewart V (1991). "Nitrate-inducible formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12. I. Nucleotide sequence of the fdnGHI operon and evidence that opal (UGA) encodes selenocysteine." J Biol Chem 1991;266(33);22380-5. PMID: 1834669

Boxer82: Boxer D, Malcolm A, Graham A (1982). "Escherichia coli formate to nitrate respiratory pathway: structural analysis." Biochem Soc Trans 10(6);480-1. PMID: 6759195

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Buc99: Buc J, Santini CL, Giordani R, Czjzek M, Wu LF, Giordano G (1999). "Enzymatic and physiological properties of the tungsten-substituted molybdenum TMAO reductase from Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 32(1);159-68. PMID: 10216869

Buchanan08: Buchanan G, Maillard J, Nabuurs SB, Richardson DJ, Palmer T, Sargent F (2008). "Features of a twin-arginine signal peptide required for recognition by a Tat proofreading chaperone." FEBS Lett 582(29);3979-84. PMID: 19013157

Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043

Chan09: Chan CS, Chang L, Rommens KL, Turner RJ (2009). "Differential interactions between Tat-specific redox enzyme peptides and their chaperones." J Bacteriol 191(7):2091-101. PMID: 19151138

Chan10: Chan CS, Chang L, Winstone TM, Turner RJ (2010). "Comparing system-specific chaperone interactions with their Tat dependent redox enzyme substrates." FEBS Lett 584(22);4553-8. PMID: 20974141

Collins81: Collins MD, Jones D (1981). "Distribution of isoprenoid quinone structural types in bacteria and their taxonomic implication." Microbiol Rev 45(2);316-54. PMID: 7022156

Cotter89: Cotter PA, Gunsalus RP (1989). "Oxygen, nitrate, and molybdenum regulation of dmsABC gene expression in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 171(7);3817-23. PMID: 2544558

Cox81: Cox JC, Edwards ES, DeMoss JA (1981). "Resolution of distinct selenium-containing formate dehydrogenases from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 145(3);1317-24. PMID: 7009577

Cox81a: Cox JC, Knight R (1981). "Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase activity in chlorate-resistant or respiration-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli." FEMS Microbiology Letters 12 249-252.

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Enoch72: Enoch HG, Lester RL (1972). "Effects of molybdate, tungstate, and selenium compounds on formate dehydrogenase and other enzyme systems in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 110(3);1032-40. PMID: 4555402

Enoch74: Enoch HG, Lester RL (1974). "The role of a novel cytochrome b-containing nitrate reductase and quinone in the in vitro reconstruction of formate-nitrate reductase activity of E. coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 61(4);1234-41. PMID: 4616697

Enoch75: Enoch HG, Lester RL (1975). "The purification and properties of formate dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1975;250(17);6693-705. PMID: 1099093

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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