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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: allantoin degradation to ureidoglycolate II (ammonia producing)
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: allantoin degradation to ureidoglycolate II (ammonia producing)

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for allantoin degradation to ureidoglycolate II (ammonia producing)

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationAmines and Polyamines DegradationAllantoin Degradation

(S)-(+)-allantoin is a common product of purine degradation. E. coli is able to utilize allantoin as the sole source of nitrogen under anaerobic conditions [Cusa99]. Many organisms that degrade (S)-(+)-allantoin do so with the concomitant production of ammonia. Following (S)-(+)-allantoin ring opening by allantoinase, there are two immediate steps in which ammonia is formed - the conversion of allantoate to S-ureidoglycine, and the conversion of the latter to S-ureidoglycolate [Cusa99, Werner10, Serventi10].

Radio-labelled carbon experiments indicated the presence of a uricase that catalyses degradation of urate to S-allantoin, but no such enzyme has been detected in E. coli [Xi00]. However, a pathway of urate degradation to allantoin I has been discovered in other organisms.

Superpathways: allantoin degradation IV (anaerobic), allantoin degradation to glyoxylate III

Created 06-Nov-2007 by Caspi R, SRI International
Revised 07-Jan-2010 by Keseler I, SRI International
Last-Curated 20-Mar-2008 by Keseler I, SRI International


Cusa99: Cusa E, Obradors N, Baldoma L, Badia J, Aguilar J (1999). "Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing genes required for assimilation of allantoin nitrogen and linked glyoxylate metabolism in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1999;181(24);7479-84. PMID: 10601204

Serventi10: Serventi F, Ramazzina I, Lamberto I, Puggioni V, Gatti R, Percudani R (2010). "Chemical basis of nitrogen recovery through the ureide pathway: formation and hydrolysis of S-ureidoglycine in plants and bacteria." ACS Chem Biol 5(2);203-14. PMID: 20038185

Werner10: Werner AK, Romeis T, Witte CP (2010). "Ureide catabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli." Nat Chem Biol 6(1);19-21. PMID: 19935661

Xi00: Xi H, Schneider BL, Reitzer L (2000). "Purine catabolism in Escherichia coli and function of xanthine dehydrogenase in purine salvage." J Bacteriol 182(19);5332-41. PMID: 10986234

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Agarwal07: Agarwal R, Burley SK, Swaminathan S (2007). "Structural analysis of a ternary complex of allantoate amidohydrolase from Escherichia coli reveals its mechanics." J Mol Biol 368(2);450-63. PMID: 17362992

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Ho11: Ho YY, Hsieh HC, Huang CY (2011). "Biochemical characterization of allantoinase from Escherichia coli BL21." Protein J 30(6);384-94. PMID: 21739308

Kim00a: Kim GJ, Lee DE, Kim HS (2000). "Functional expression and characterization of the two cyclic amidohydrolase enzymes, allantoinase and a novel phenylhydantoinase, from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 2000;182(24);7021-8. PMID: 11092864

Kim09: Kim K, Kim MI, Chung J, Ahn JH, Rhee S (2009). "Crystal structure of metal-dependent allantoinase from Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 387(5);1067-74. PMID: 19248789

Mulrooney03: Mulrooney SB, Hausinger RP (2003). "Metal ion dependence of recombinant Escherichia coli allantoinase." J Bacteriol 185(1);126-34. PMID: 12486048

Puggioni14: Puggioni V, Dondi A, Folli C, Shin I, Rhee S, Percudani R (2014). "Gene context analysis reveals functional divergence between hypothetically equivalent enzymes of the purine-ureide pathway." Biochemistry 53(4);735-45. PMID: 24417435

Shin14: Shin I, Han K, Rhee S (2014). "Structural Insights into the Substrate Specificity of (S)-Ureidoglycolate Amidohydrolase and Its Comparison with Allantoate Amidohydrolase." J Mol Biol. PMID: 25020232

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA12: UniProt-GOA (2012). "Gene Ontology annotation based on UniPathway vocabulary mapping."

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Sun May 1, 2016, biocyc14.