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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: superpathway of histidine, purine, and pyrimidine biosynthesis

Pathway diagram: superpathway of histidine, purine, and pyrimidine biosynthesis

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for superpathway of histidine, purine, and pyrimidine biosynthesis

Superclasses: Superpathways

Pyrimidine, purine, and pyridine nucleotide synthesis all require phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) as a precursor. PRPP is utilized by both the de novo pathways and the auxiliary or salvage pathways by which endogenously formed or exogenously added pyrimidine, purine, or pyridine bases are converted to the corresponding ribonucleoside monophosphates by phosphoribosyltransferases. PRPP is also used in the histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis pathways. PRPP thus may be regarded as a precursor for the synthesis of nucleic acids, proteins, and for the NAD(P) coenzymes.The formation of PRPP therefore is subjected to strict metabolic control. [HoveJensen86]

Subpathways: guanosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis, guanosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis II, 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis II, inosine-5'-phosphate biosynthesis I, superpathway of guanosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II, superpathway of adenosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II, adenosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis II, adenosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis, L-histidine biosynthesis, superpathway of purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II, PRPP biosynthesis I, PRPP biosynthesis II, superpathway of pyrimidine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis, UTP and CTP de novo biosynthesis, UMP biosynthesis


HoveJensen86: Hove-Jensen B, Harlow KW, King CJ, Switzer RL (1986). "Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase of Escherichia coli. Properties of the purified enzyme and primary structure of the prs gene." J Biol Chem 1986;261(15);6765-71. PMID: 3009477

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Abbott06: Abbott JL, Newell JM, Lightcap CM, Olanich ME, Loughlin DT, Weller MA, Lam G, Pollack S, Patton WA (2006). "The Effects of Removing the GAT Domain from E. coli GMP Synthetase." Protein J 25;483-491. PMID: 17103135

Abrahams94: Abrahams JP, Leslie AG, Lutter R, Walker JE (1994). "Structure at 2.8 A resolution of F1-ATPase from bovine heart mitochondria." Nature 370(6491);621-8. PMID: 8065448

Adams54: Adams E (1954). "The enzymatic synthesis of histidine from histidinol." J Biol Chem 209(2);829-46. PMID: 13192138

Adams55: Adams E (1955). "L-Histidinal, a biosynthetic precursor of histidine." J Biol Chem 217(1);325-44. PMID: 13271397

Aghajari94: Aghajari N, Jensen KF, Gajhede M (1994). "Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on the Apo form of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase from Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 241(2);292-4. PMID: 8057372

Ahmad69: Ahmad SI, Pritchard RH (1969). "A map of four genes specifying enzymes involved in catabolism of nucleosides and deoxynucleosides in Escherichia coli." Mol Gen Genet 104(4);351-9. PMID: 4904508

Aiba89: Aiba A, Mizobuchi K (1989). "Nucleotide sequence analysis of genes purH and purD involved in the de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1989;264(35);21239-46. PMID: 2687276

Aksimentiev04: Aksimentiev A, Balabin IA, Fillingame RH, Schulten K (2004). "Insights into the molecular mechanism of rotation in the Fo sector of ATP synthase." Biophys J 86(3);1332-44. PMID: 14990464

Alam04: Alam N, Stieglitz KA, Caban MD, Gourinath S, Tsuruta H, Kantrowitz ER (2004). "240s loop interactions stabilize the T state of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase." J Biol Chem 279(22);23302-10. PMID: 15014067

Allard92: Allard P, Kuprin S, Shen B, Ehrenberg A (1992). "Binding of the competitive inhibitor dCDP to ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase from Escherichia coli studied by 1H NMR. Different properties of the large protein subunit and the holoenzyme." Eur J Biochem 1992;208(3);635-42. PMID: 1396671

Almaula95: Almaula N, Lu Q, Delgado J, Belkin S, Inouye M (1995). "Nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 177(9);2524-9. PMID: 7730286

alShawi92: al-Shawi MK, Senior AE (1992). "Catalytic sites of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. Characterization of unisite catalysis at varied pH." Biochemistry 31(3);878-85. PMID: 1531027

Aluri15: Aluri S, Rex K, Varshney U (2015). "Simultaneous presence of fhs and purT genes is disadvantageous for the fitness of Escherichia coli growth." FEMS Microbiol Lett. PMID: 26100103

Anand04: Anand R, Hoskins AA, Stubbe J, Ealick SE (2004). "Domain organization of Salmonella typhimurium formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase revealed by X-ray crystallography." Biochemistry 43(32);10328-42. PMID: 15301531

Andersen91: Andersen JT, Jensen KF, Poulsen P (1991). "Role of transcription pausing in the control of the pyrE attenuator in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 5(2);327-33. PMID: 1710313

Anderson75: Anderson PM, Carlson JD (1975). "Reversible reaction of cyanate with a reactive sulfhydryl group at the glutamine binding site of carbamyl phosphate synthetase." Biochemistry 1975;14(16);3688-94. PMID: 240389

Anderson77: Anderson PM (1977). "Binding of allosteric effectors to carbamyl-phosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 1977;16(4);587-93. PMID: 189806

Anderson83: Anderson PM (1983). "CTP synthetase from Escherichia coli: an improved purification procedure and characterization of hysteretic and enzyme concentration effects on kinetic properties." Biochemistry 22(13);3285-92. PMID: 6349684

Andersson99: Andersson ME, Hogbom M, Rinaldo-Matthis A, Andersson KK, Sjoberg BM, Nordlund P (1999). "The Crystal Structure of an Azide Complex of the Diferrous R2 Subunit of Ribonucleotide Reductase Displays a Novel Carboxylate Shift with Important Mechanistic Implications for Diiron-Catalyzed Oxygen Activation." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121: 2346-2352.

Ando96: Ando H, Kitabatake M, Inokuchi H (1996). "10Sa RNA complements the temperature-sensitive phenotype caused by a mutation in the phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase (prs) gene in Escherichia coli." Genes Genet Syst 71(1);47-50. PMID: 8925474

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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