If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Cell Structures Biosynthesis → Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis → O-Antigen Biosynthesis|
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major outer membrane component, is composed of three domains: Lipid A; the core, which is an oligosaccharide consisting of an inner and outer region; and a distal repeating unit known as O-antigen.
E. coli K12 is capable of producing an O-antigen when all the rfb genes are intact. The O-antigen is part of the lipopolysaccharide and is attached to the lipid A-core component, which is separately synthesized. The O-antigen is a repeat unit composed of four sugars: glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and rhamnose.
This pathway depicts the synthesis of three of these sugars. UDP-galactose is transformed from its pyranose form to its furanose form. dTTP glucose-1-phosphate is derivatized to dTDP-rhamnose. Fructose-6-phosphate gains an amino group, incorporates an acetate moiety and then acquires a nucleoside diphosphate resulting in UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.
During formation of the repeat unit, the nucleoside diphosphates are removed. The repeat unit is polymerized and attached to the outer core. Formation and polymerization of the O-antigen repeat unit is not shown here as it is a complex macromolecular transformation which presently lies outside the scope of EcoCyc. [Stevenson94, Liu94a, Neidhardt96]
Neidhardt96: Neidhardt FC, Curtiss III R, Ingraham JL, Lin ECC, Low Jr KB, Magasanik B, Reznikoff WS, Riley M, Schaechter M, Umbarger HE "Escherichia coli and Salmonella, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Second Edition." American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1996.
Stevenson94: Stevenson G, Neal B, Liu D, Hobbs M, Packer NH, Batley M, Redmond JW, Lindquist L, Reeves P (1994). "Structure of the O antigen of Escherichia coli K-12 and the sequence of its rfb gene cluster." J Bacteriol 1994;176(13);4144-56. PMID: 7517391
Ahn11: Ahn J, Chung BK, Lee DY, Park M, Karimi IA, Jung JK, Lee H (2011). "NADPH-dependent pgi-gene knockout Escherichia coli metabolism producing shikimate on different carbon sources." FEMS Microbiol Lett 324(1);10-6. PMID: 22092758
Al12: Al Mamun AA, Lombardo MJ, Shee C, Lisewski AM, Gonzalez C, Lin D, Nehring RB, Saint-Ruf C, Gibson JL, Frisch RL, Lichtarge O, Hastings PJ, Rosenberg SM (2012). "Identity and function of a large gene network underlying mutagenic repair of DNA breaks." Science 338(6112);1344-8. PMID: 23224554
Allard00: Allard ST, Giraud MF, Whitfield C, Messner P, Naismith JH (2000). "The purification, crystallization and structural elucidation of dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB), the second enzyme of the dTDP-L-rhamnose synthesis pathway from Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium." Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 56(Pt 2);222-5. PMID: 10666612
Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699
Badet87: Badet B, Vermoote P, Haumont PY, Lederer F, LeGoffic F (1987). "Glucosamine synthetase from Escherichia coli: purification, properties, and glutamine-utilizing site location." Biochemistry 1987;26(7);1940-8. PMID: 3297136
Badet88: Badet B, Vermoote P, Le Goffic F (1988). "Glucosamine synthetase from Escherichia coli: kinetic mechanism and inhibition by N3-fumaroyl-L-2,3-diaminopropionic derivatives." Biochemistry 1988;27(7);2282-7. PMID: 3132968
BadetDenisot92: Badet-Denisot MA, Badet B (1992). "Chemical modification of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase by diethyl pyrocarbonate: evidence of histidine requirement for enzymatic activity." Arch Biochem Biophys 1992;292(2);475-8. PMID: 1731613
BadetDenisot95: Badet-Denisot MA, Leriche C, Massiere F, Badet B (1995). "Nitrogen transfer in E. coli glucosamine-6P synthase. Investigations using substrate and bisubstrate analogs." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 5(8);815-820.
Bearne00: Bearne SL, Blouin C (2000). "Inhibition of Escherichia coli glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase by reactive intermediate analogues. The role of the 2-amino function in catalysis." J Biol Chem 275(1);135-40. PMID: 10617596
Bearne95: Bearne SL, Wolfenden R (1995). "Glutamate gamma-semialdehyde as a natural transition state analogue inhibitor of Escherichia coli glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase." Biochemistry 34(36);11515-20. PMID: 7547881
Bearne96: Bearne SL (1996). "Active site-directed inactivation of Escherichia coli glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. Determination of the fructose 6-phosphate binding constant using a carbohydrate-based inactivator." J Biol Chem 271(6);3052-7. PMID: 8621700
Blankenfeldt02: Blankenfeldt W, Kerr ID, Giraud MF, McMiken HJ, Leonard G, Whitfield C, Messner P, Graninger M, Naismith JH (2002). "Variation on a theme of SDR. dTDP-6-deoxy-L- lyxo-4-hexulose reductase (RmlD) shows a new Mg2+-dependent dimerization mode." Structure 10(6);773-86. PMID: 12057193
Brown99a: Brown K, Pompeo F, Dixon S, Mengin-Lecreulx D, Cambillau C, Bourne Y (1999). "Crystal structure of the bifunctional N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate uridyltransferase from Escherichia coli: a paradigm for the related pyrophosphorylase superfamily." EMBO J 18(15);4096-107. PMID: 10428949
Burton06: Burton E, Gawande PV, Yakandawala N, LoVetri K, Zhanel GG, Romeo T, Friesen AD, Madhyastha S (2006). "Antibiofilm activity of GlmU enzyme inhibitors against catheter-associated uropathogens." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50(5);1835-40. PMID: 16641457
Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043
Byrne14: Byrne RT, Chen SH, Wood EA, Cabot EL, Cox MM (2014). "Escherichia coli genes and pathways involved in surviving extreme exposure to ionizing radiation." J Bacteriol 196(20);3534-45. PMID: 25049088
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