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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: L-threonine biosynthesis
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: L-threonine biosynthesis

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for L-threonine biosynthesis

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmino Acids BiosynthesisProteinogenic Amino Acids BiosynthesisL-threonine Biosynthesis

Biosynthesis of threonine from homoserine is accomplished in a two-step pathway involving the phosphorylated intermediate O-phospho-L-homoserine.

The final product of this pathway, threonine, serves as a structural constituent of proteins and feeds into the biosynthetic pathway for isoleucine. The enzymes carrying out both steps in this pathway are regulated at the gene level by threonine- and isoleucine-dependent attenuation, as part of attenuation control of an operon that also includes a gene coding for an enzyme in the upstream pathway of homoserine biosynthesis.

Review: Patte, J.-C., Biosynthesis of Threonine and Lysine, Chapter 32 [Neidhardt96]

Superpathways: superpathway of L-threonine biosynthesis, superpathway of L-lysine, L-threonine and L-methionine biosynthesis I, aspartate superpathway

Last-Curated 09-May-2008 by Shearer A, SRI International


Cohen54: Cohen GN, Hirsch ML (1954). "Threonine synthase, a system synthesizing L-threonine from L homoserine." J Bacteriol 67(2);182-90. PMID: 13129211

Neidhardt96: Neidhardt FC, Curtiss III R, Ingraham JL, Lin ECC, Low Jr KB, Magasanik B, Reznikoff WS, Riley M, Schaechter M, Umbarger HE "Escherichia coli and Salmonella, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Second Edition." American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1996.

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Burr76: Burr B, Walker J, Truffa-Bachi P, Cohen GN (1976). "Homoserine kinase from Escherichia coli K12." Eur J Biochem 1976;62(3);519-26. PMID: 177283

Chassagnole01: Chassagnole C, Rais B, Quentin E, Fell DA, Mazat JP (2001). "An integrated study of threonine-pathway enzyme kinetics in Escherichia coli." Biochem J 356(Pt 2);415-23. PMID: 11368768

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Farrington93: Farrington GK, Kumar A, Shames SL, Ewaskiewicz JI, Ash DE, Wedler FC (1993). "Threonine synthase of Escherichia coli: inhibition by classical and slow-binding analogues of homoserine phosphate." Arch Biochem Biophys 307(1);165-74. PMID: 7902068

Gaudet10: Gaudet P, Livstone M, Thomas P (2010). "Annotation inferences using phylogenetic trees." PMID: 19578431

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Huo96: Huo X, Viola RE (1996). "Substrate specificity and identification of functional groups of homoserine kinase from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 35(50);16180-5. PMID: 8973190

Huo96a: Huo X, Viola RE (1996). "Functional group characterization of homoserine kinase from Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 330(2);373-9. PMID: 8660667

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Kim10c: Kim J, Kershner JP, Novikov Y, Shoemaker RK, Copley SD (2010). "Three serendipitous pathways in E. coli can bypass a block in pyridoxal-5'-phosphate synthesis." Mol Syst Biol 6;436. PMID: 21119630

Laber94: Laber B, Gerbling KP, Harde C, Neff KH, Nordhoff E, Pohlenz HD (1994). "Mechanisms of interaction of Escherichia coli threonine synthase with substrates and inhibitors." Biochemistry 33(11);3413-23. PMID: 7907888

Little89: Little S, Hyde S, Campbell CJ, Lilley RJ, Robinson MK (1989). "Translational coupling in the threonine operon of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 171(6);3518-22. PMID: 2542227

LopezCampistrou05: Lopez-Campistrous A, Semchuk P, Burke L, Palmer-Stone T, Brokx SJ, Broderick G, Bottorff D, Bolch S, Weiner JH, Ellison MJ (2005). "Localization, annotation, and comparison of the Escherichia coli K-12 proteome under two states of growth." Mol Cell Proteomics 4(8);1205-9. PMID: 15911532

Parsot83: Parsot C, Cossart P, Saint-Girons I, Cohen GN (1983). "Nucleotide sequence of thrC and of the transcription termination region of the threonine operon in Escherichia coli K12." Nucleic Acids Res 11(21);7331-45. PMID: 6316258

Shames84: Shames SL, Ash DE, Wedler FC, Villafranca JJ (1984). "Interaction of aspartate and aspartate-derived antimetabolites with the enzymes of the threonine biosynthetic pathway of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1984;259:15331-15339. PMID: 6150934

Shames84a: Shames SL, Wedler FC (1984). "Homoserine kinase of Escherichia coli: kinetic mechanism and inhibition by L-aspartate semialdehyde." Arch Biochem Biophys 235(2);359-70. PMID: 6097184

Theze74: Theze J, Margarita D, Cohen GN, Borne F, Patte JC (1974). "Mapping of the structural genes of the three aspartokinases and of the two homoserine dehydrogenases of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 117(1);133-43. PMID: 4148765

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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