If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Amino Acids Biosynthesis → Proteinogenic Amino Acids Biosynthesis → L-histidine Biosynthesis|
The pathway of histidine biosynthesis comprises ten reactions carried out by nine enzymes coded for by eight genes. There are nine free and one enzyme-bound intermediate. This complexity derives from the existence of three bifunctional proteins in the pathway as well as one holoenzyme composed of two separate gene products.
The overall regulation of the pathway stems from feedback inhibition of the first pathway step by the final product of the pathway, L-histidine.
The histidine biosynthesis pathway shares metabolites with the purine and nucleotide biosynthesis pathways. This affords the opportunity to connect synthesis of amino acids with the synthesis of nucleotides. The common metabolites are PRPP (which is also fundamental to intermediate metabolism), and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR).
Barbosa02b: Barbosa JA, Sivaraman J, Li Y, Larocque R, Matte A, Schrag JD, Cygler M (2002). "Mechanism of action and NAD+-binding mode revealed by the crystal structure of L-histidinol dehydrogenase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(4);1859-64. PMID: 11842181
Beckler86: Beckler GS, Reeve JN (1986). "Conservation of primary structure in the hisI gene of the archaebacterium, Methanococcus vannielii, the eubacterium Escherichia coli, and the eucaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Mol Gen Genet 204(1);133-40. PMID: 3018439
Bitar77: Bitar KG, Firca JR, Loper JC (1977). "Histidinol dehydrogenase from salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Purification, some characteristics and the amino acid sequence around a reactive thiol group." Biochim Biophys Acta 493(2);429-40. PMID: 329890
Brady73: Brady DR, Houston LL (1973). "Some properties of the catalytic sites of imidazoleglycerol phosphate dehydratase-histidinol phosphate phosphatase, a bifunctional enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium." J Biol Chem 1973;248(7);2588-92. PMID: 4349042
Bruni86: Bruni CB, Carlomagno MS, Formisano S, Paolella G (1986). "Primary and secondary structural homologies between the HIS4 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the hisIE and hisD gene products of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium." Mol Gen Genet 1986;203(3);389-96. PMID: 3528746
Carlomagno88: Carlomagno MS, Chiariotti L, Alifano P, Nappo AG, Bruni CB (1988). "Structure and function of the Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli K-12 histidine operons." J Mol Biol 1988;203(3);585-606. PMID: 3062174
Chiariotti86: Chiariotti L, Alifano P, Carlomagno MS, Bruni CB (1986). "Nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli hisD gene and of the Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium hisIE region." Mol Gen Genet 1986;203(3);382-8. PMID: 3018428
DallLarsen75: Dall-Larsen T, Fasold H, Klungsoyr L, Kryvi H, Meyer C, Ortanderl F (1975). "Affinity labelling to - SH groups in adenosine - triphosphate - phosphoribosyl transferase with the dinitrophenyl group from S-dinitrophenyl-6-mercaptopurine-riboside 5'-phosphate." Eur J Biochem 60(1);103-7. PMID: 1204631
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
Fujimori98: Fujimori K, Ohta D (1998). "Isolation and characterization of a histidine biosynthetic gene in Arabidopsis encoding a polypeptide with two separate domains for phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphohydrolase and phosphoribosyl-AMP cyclohydrolase." Plant Physiol 118(1);275-83. PMID: 9733547
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