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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: fatty acid β-oxidation I

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation Fatty Acid and Lipids Degradation Fatty Acids Degradation

Summary:

Aerobic pathway

Although enzymes of the pathway handle both short and long chain fatty acids, it is the long chain compounds that induce the enzymes of the pathway [Clark81]. Each turn of the cycle removes two carbon atoms until only two or three remain. When even-numbered fatty acids are broken down, a two-carbon compound remains, acetyl-CoA. When odd number fatty acids are broken down, a three-carbon residue results, propionylCoA. This is further catabolized by the reactions of proprionate catabolism. Unsaturated fatty acids, with cis double bonds located at odd-numbered carbon atoms, enter the main pathway of saturated fatty acid degradation by converting related metabolites of cis configuration and D stereoisomers, derived from breakdown of unsaturated fatty acids, to the trans- or L isomers of saturated fatty acid breakdown by an isomerase and an epimerase, respectively. When cis double bonds are located at even-numbered carbon atoms, such as linoleic acid (cis,cis(9,12)-octadecadienoic acid), after the fatty acid is degraded to the ten carbon stage an extra step is required to deal with the resulting compound, trans,δ(2)-cis,δ(4)decadienoyl-CoA. The enzyme 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, E.C. 1.3.1.34, converts this to trans,δ(2)decenoyl-CoA which enters the normal cycle at the point of the isomerase.

Anaerobic pathway

More recently, an anaerobic pathway of fatty acid metabolism has been characterized [Campbell03a]. Anaerobic β-oxidation of fatty acids utilizes fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor [MorganKiss04]. In contrast to the aerobic pathway, octanoate and decanoate can serve as substrates for the anaerobic fatty acid oxidation pathway [Campbell03a]. In the anaerobic pathway FadI, FadJ, and FadK serve functions parallel to those of FadA, FadB, and FadD in the aerobic pathway [Campbell03a].

The glyoxylate cycle is necessary for anaerobic or aerobic fatty acid oxidation to provide the carbon and energy for cell growth [Campbell03a].

Credits:
Created 06-Feb-1995 by Riley M , Marine Biological Laboratory


References

Campbell03a: Campbell JW, Morgan-Kiss RM, E Cronan J (2003). "A new Escherichia coli metabolic competency: growth on fatty acids by a novel anaerobic beta-oxidation pathway." Mol Microbiol 47(3);793-805. PMID: 12535077

Clark81: Clark D (1981). "Regulation of fatty acid degradation in Escherichia coli: analysis by operon fusion." J Bacteriol 1981;148(2);521-6. PMID: 6271734

MorganKiss04: Morgan-Kiss RM, Cronan JE (2004). "The Escherichia coli fadK (ydiD) gene encodes an anerobically regulated short chain acyl-CoA synthetase." J Biol Chem 279(36);37324-33. PMID: 15213221

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Bairoch93: Bairoch A, Boeckmann B (1993). "The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank, recent developments." Nucleic Acids Res. 21:3093-3096. PMID: 8332529

Beloin04: Beloin C, Valle J, Latour-Lambert P, Faure P, Kzreminski M, Balestrino D, Haagensen JA, Molin S, Prensier G, Arbeille B, Ghigo JM (2004). "Global impact of mature biofilm lifestyle on Escherichia coli K-12 gene expression." Mol Microbiol 51(3);659-74. PMID: 14731270

Binstock81: Binstock JF, Schulz H (1981). "Fatty acid oxidation complex from Escherichia coli." Methods Enzymol 1981;71 Pt C;403-11. PMID: 7024730

Black92: Black PN, DiRusso CC, Metzger AK, Heimert TL (1992). "Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the fadD gene of Escherichia coli encoding acyl coenzyme A synthetase." J Biol Chem 1992;267(35);25513-20. PMID: 1460045

Black97: Black PN, Zhang Q, Weimar JD, DiRusso CC (1997). "Mutational analysis of a fatty acyl-coenzyme A synthetase signature motif identifies seven amino acid residues that modulate fatty acid substrate specificity." J Biol Chem 272(8);4896-903. PMID: 9030548

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014." http://www.brenda-enzymes.org.

Campbell02: Campbell JW, Cronan JE (2002). "The enigmatic Escherichia coli fadE gene is yafH." J Bacteriol 184(13);3759-64. PMID: 12057976

Chen94a: Chen D, Swenson RP (1994). "Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the genes encoding the two subunits of the methylotrophic bacterium W3A1 electron transfer flavoprotein." J Biol Chem 269(51);32120-30. PMID: 7798207

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

Dellomonaco11: Dellomonaco C, Clomburg JM, Miller EN, Gonzalez R (2011). "Engineered reversal of the β-oxidation cycle for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals." Nature 476(7360);355-9. PMID: 21832992

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Dirusso04: Dirusso CC, Black PN (2004). "Bacterial long chain fatty acid transport: gateway to a fatty acid-responsive signaling system." J Biol Chem 279(48);49563-6. PMID: 15347640

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

He96: He XY, Yang SY (1996). "Histidine-450 is the catalytic residue of L-3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase associated with the large alpha-subunit of the multienzyme complex of fatty acid oxidation from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 1996;35(29);9625-30. PMID: 8755745

Hsu91: Hsu L, Jackowski S, Rock CO (1991). "Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants lacking both 2-acyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine acyltransferase and acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase activity." J Biol Chem 1991;266(21);13783-8. PMID: 1649829

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Ishizaki06: Ishizaki K, Schauer N, Larson TR, Graham IA, Fernie AR, Leaver CJ (2006). "The mitochondrial electron transfer flavoprotein complex is essential for survival of Arabidopsis in extended darkness." Plant J 47(5);751-60. PMID: 16923016

Kameda81: Kameda K, Nunn WD (1981). "Purification and characterization of acyl coenzyme A synthetase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1981;256(11);5702-7. PMID: 7016858

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Tue Nov 25, 2014, biocyc13.