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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: superpathway of branched amino acid biosynthesis

Pathway diagram: superpathway of branched amino acid biosynthesis

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for superpathway of branched amino acid biosynthesis

Synonyms: superpathway of L-leucine, L-valine, and L-isoleucine biosynthesis

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmino Acids Biosynthesis

Subpathways: L-leucine biosynthesis, L-isoleucine biosynthesis I (from threonine), L-valine biosynthesis

References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Adelberg53: Adelberg EA, Umbarger HE (1953). "Isoleucine and valine metabolism in Escherichia coli. V. alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid accumulation." J Biol Chem 205(1);475-82. PMID: 13117924

AlexanderCaudle90: Alexander-Caudle C, Latinwo LM, Jackson JH (1990). "Acetohydroxy acid synthase activity from a mutation at ilvF in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 1990;172(6);3060-5. PMID: 2188950

Andersen01a: Andersen DC, Swartz J, Ryll T, Lin N, Snedecor B (2001). "Metabolic oscillations in an E. coli fermentation." Biotechnol Bioeng 75(2);212-8. PMID: 11536144

Aulabaugh90: Aulabaugh A, Schloss JV (1990). "Oxalyl hydroxamates as reaction-intermediate analogues for ketol-acid reductoisomerase." Biochemistry 29(11);2824-30. PMID: 2189496

Bairoch93: Bairoch A, Boeckmann B (1993). "The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank, recent developments." Nucleic Acids Res. 21:3093-3096. PMID: 8332529

Barak12: Barak Z, Chipman DM (2012). "Allosteric regulation in Acetohydroxyacid Synthases (AHASs)--different structures and kinetic behavior in isozymes in the same organisms." Arch Biochem Biophys 519(2);167-74. PMID: 22198286

Barak87: Barak Z, Chipman DM, Gollop N (1987). "Physiological implications of the specificity of acetohydroxy acid synthase isozymes of enteric bacteria." J Bacteriol 169(8);3750-6. PMID: 3301814

Barak88: Barak Z, Calvo JM, Schloss JV (1988). "Acetolactate synthase isozyme III from Escherichia coli." Methods Enzymol 1988;166;455-8. PMID: 3071721

Bell72: Bell SC, Turner JM, Collins J, Gray TR (1972). "Patterns of microbial threonine catabolism: a survey." Biochem J 127(3);77P. PMID: 5076220

Bell77: Bell SC, Turner JM (1977). "Bacterial catabolism of threonine. Threonine degradation initiated by l-threonine hydrolyase (deaminating) in a species of Corynebacterium." Biochem J 164(3);579-587. PMID: 16743051

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Brown78: Brown OR, Yein F (1978). "Dihydroxyacid dehydratase: the site of hyperbaric oxygen poisoning in branch-chain amino acid biosynthesis." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 85(3);1219-24. PMID: 367373

Burns95: Burns DM, Burger MJ, Beacham IR (1995). "Silent genes in bacteria: the previously designated 'cryptic' ilvHI locus of 'Salmonella typhimurium LT2' is active in natural isolates." FEMS Microbiol Lett 131(2);167-72. PMID: 7557326

Calhoun73: Calhoun DH, Rimerman RA, Hatfield GW (1973). "Threonine deaminase from Escherichia coli. I. Purification and properties." J Biol Chem 1973;248(10);3511-6. PMID: 4573981

Calvo62: Calvo JM, Kalyanpur MG, Stevens CM (1962). "2-Isopropylmalate and 3-isopropylmalate as intermediates in leucine biosynthesis." Biochemistry 1;1157-61. PMID: 14017963

Carlsen13: Carlsen S, Ajikumar PK, Formenti LR, Zhou K, Phon TH, Nielsen ML, Lantz AE, Kielland-Brandt MC, Stephanopoulos G (2013). "Heterologous expression and characterization of bacterial 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97(13);5753-69. PMID: 23636690

Chen13: Chen L, Chen Z, Zheng P, Sun J, Zeng AP (2013). "Study and reengineering of the binding sites and allosteric regulation of biosynthetic threonine deaminase by isoleucine and valine in Escherichia coli." Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97(7);2939-49. PMID: 22669632

Chen91: Chen JW, Harms E, Umbarger HE (1991). "Mutations replacing the leucine codons or altering the length of the amino acid-coding portion of the ilvGMEDA leader region of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 173(7);2341-53. PMID: 2007556

Cho04: Cho BK, Park HY, Seo JH, Kinnera K, Lee BS, Kim BG (2004). "Enzymatic resolution for the preparation of enantiomerically enriched D-beta-heterocyclic alanine derivatives using Escherichia coli aromatic L-amino acid transaminase." Biotechnol Bioeng 88(4);512-9. PMID: 15459908

Chunduru89: Chunduru SK, Mrachko GT, Calvo KC (1989). "Mechanism of ketol acid reductoisomerase--steady-state analysis and metal ion requirement." Biochemistry 28(2);486-93. PMID: 2653423

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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