If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
Synonyms: aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, shikimate pathway
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Aromatic Compounds Biosynthesis → Chorismate Biosynthesis|
Chorismate is an intermediate in the synthesis of three amino acids: tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan. In addition it is a precursor of folic acid, ubiquinone, menaquinone, and enterochelin. The first reaction in the chorismate pathway, also referred to as shikimate pathway, is catalyzed by three separate enzymes, each of which is subject to feedback inhibition by one of the three amino acids. However, even in the presence of all three amino acids, sufficient enzymatic activity is present to permit synthesis of the other four metabolites synthesized from chorismate because the enzyme subject to regulation by tryptophan cannot be inhibited more than 60 percent.
Review: Pittard, J. and J. Yang (2004) "Biosynthesis of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine." EcoSal 18.104.22.168 [ECOSAL]
Akowski97: Akowski JP, Bauerle R (1997). "Steady-state kinetics and inhibitor binding of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (tryptophan sensitive) from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 1997;36(50);15817-22. PMID: 9398312
Anderson88a: Anderson KS, Sikorski JA, Johnson KA (1988). "Evaluation of 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase substrate and inhibitor binding by stopped-flow and equilibrium fluorescence measurements." Biochemistry 1988;27(5);1604-10. PMID: 3284585
Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699
Baasov89: Baasov T, Knowles JR (1989). "Is the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (tyrosine sensitive), a copper metalloenzyme?." J Bacteriol 171(11);6155-60. PMID: 2572582
Benach03: Benach J, Lee I, Edstrom W, Kuzin AP, Chiang Y, Acton TB, Montelione GT, Hunt JF (2003). "The 2.3-A crystal structure of the shikimate 5-dehydrogenase orthologue YdiB from Escherichia coli suggests a novel catalytic environment for an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 278(21);19176-82. PMID: 12624088
Bender89: Bender SL, Mehdi S, Knowles JR (1989). "Dehydroquinate synthase: the role of divalent metal cations and of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in catalysis." Biochemistry 28(19);7555-60. PMID: 2514789
Berti09: Berti PJ, Chindemi P (2009). "Catalytic residues and an electrostatic sandwich that promote enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase (AroA) catalysis." Biochemistry 48(17);3699-707. PMID: 19271774
Bornemann00: Bornemann S, Theoclitou ME, Brune M, Webb MR, Thorneley RN, Abell C (2000). "A Secondary beta Deuterium Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Chorismate Synthase Reaction." BIO-ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 28(4);191-204. PMID: 11034781
Bornemann95: Bornemann S, Balasubramanian S, Coggins JR, Abell C, Lowe DJ, Thorneley RN (1995). "Escherichia coli chorismate synthase: a deuterium kinetic-isotope effect under single-turnover and steady-state conditions shows that a flavin intermediate forms before the C-(6proR)-H bond is cleaved." Biochem J 305 ( Pt 3);707-10. PMID: 7848266
Bornemann95a: Bornemann S, Ramjee MK, Balasubramanian S, Abell C, Coggins JR, Lowe DJ, Thorneley RN (1995). "Escherichia coli chorismate synthase catalyzes the conversion of (6S)-6-fluoro-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate to 6-fluorochorismate. Implications for the enzyme mechanism and the antimicrobial action of (6S)-6-fluoroshikimate." J Biol Chem 270(39);22811-5. PMID: 7559411
Bornemann96: Bornemann S, Lowe DJ, Thorneley RN (1996). "The transient kinetics of Escherichia coli chorismate synthase: substrate consumption, product formation, phosphate dissociation, and characterization of a flavin intermediate." Biochemistry 35(30);9907-16. PMID: 8703965
Camakaris71: Camakaris J, Pittard J (1971). "Repression of 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonic acid-7-phosphate synthetase (trp) and enzymes of the tryptophan pathway in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 1971;107(2);406-14. PMID: 4939760
Camakaris74: Camakaris J, Pittard J (1974). "Purification and properties of 3-deoxy-D-arabionheptulosonic acid-7-phosphate synthetase (trp) from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1974;120(2);590-7. PMID: 4218228
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