|Gene:||glmY||Accession Numbers: G0-8910 (EcoCyc), b4441, ECK2554|
Synonyms: tke1, sroF
Superclasses: a regulatory RNA
GlmY is a small RNA that specifically increases synthesis of GlmS, encoded by the second open reading frame in the glmUS operon, without affecting GlmU synthesis [Urban07a]. GlmY acts indirectly by antagonizing processing of a second small RNA, GlmZ. Only full-length GlmZ can stabilize glmS mRNA and enhance its translation [Urban08, Reichenbach08]. Unlike many other small RNAs, GlmY does not act by Hfq-facilitated base pairing. Instead, GlmY binds and sequesters RapZ, thereby inhibiting RapZ-enabled processing of GlmZ [Gopel13].
The GlmY small RNA was first reported to be present as two RNA species of approximately 150 and 180 nt in length [Rivas01]. Later, it was shown that the two GlmY RNAs have the same 5' end; thus, the shorter species may be generated by processing at the 3' end. The abundance and ratio of the two species changes with the growth phase [Vogel03].
The processed form of GlmY is polyadenylated by PcnB, and mutation of pcnB leads to stabilization of the processed form of the GlmY RNA [Urban08, Reichenbach08]. PNPase and RNase II are major factors controlling the steady-state level of GlmY RNA [Andrade12].
In growth competition experiments, a glmY deletion mutant is more sensitive to cell envelope stress than the wild type [Hobbs10].
SroF: "small RNomics RNA" [Vogel03]
GlmY: "glmS activator RNA Y" [Urban07a]
|Map Position: [2,689,179 <- 2,689,362] (57.96 centisomes)||Length: 184 bp|
|Biological Process:||GO:0036460 - cellular response to cell envelope stress
GO:0048519 - negative regulation of biological process [Urban08]
|Molecular Function:||GO:0005515 - protein binding [Gopel13]|
|MultiFun Terms:||regulation → type of regulation → posttranscriptional|
Ingrid Keseler on Fri Sep 28, 2007:
Gene end position corrected based on [Urban07a ].
Ingrid Keseler on Mon Oct 16, 2006:
Gene direction reversed according to Riley et al. (2006).
Suzanne Paley on Thu Oct 21, 2004:
Position updated based on U00096.2 release of genome
Gopel13: Gopel Y, Papenfort K, Reichenbach B, Vogel J, Gorke B (2013). "Targeted decay of a regulatory small RNA by an adaptor protein for RNase E and counteraction by an anti-adaptor RNA." Genes Dev 27(5);552-64. PMID: 23475961
Gopel14: Gopel Y, Khan MA, Gorke B (2014). "Menage a trois: Post-transcriptional control of the key enzyme for cell envelope synthesis by a base-pairing small RNA, an RNase adaptor protein, and a small RNA mimic." RNA Biol 11(5). PMID: 24667238
Hobbs10: Hobbs EC, Astarita JL, Storz G (2010). "Small RNAs and Small Proteins Involved in Resistance to Cell Envelope Stress and Acid Shock in Escherichia coli: Analysis of a Bar-coded Mutant Collection." J Bacteriol 192(1):59-62. PMID: 19734312
Reichenbach08: Reichenbach B, Maes A, Kalamorz F, Hajnsdorf E, Gorke B (2008). "The small RNA GlmY acts upstream of the sRNA GlmZ in the activation of glmS expression and is subject to regulation by polyadenylation in Escherichia coli." Nucleic Acids Res 36(8);2570-80. PMID: 18334534
Reichenbach09: Reichenbach B, Gopel Y, Gorke B (2009). "Dual control by perfectly overlapping sigma(54)- and sigma(70)-promoters adjusts small RNA GlmY expression to different environmental signals." Mol Microbiol 74(5):1054-70. PMID: 19843219
Salim12: Salim NN, Faner MA, Philip JA, Feig AL (2012). "Requirement of upstream Hfq-binding (ARN)x elements in glmS and the Hfq C-terminal region for GlmS upregulation by sRNAs GlmZ and GlmY." Nucleic Acids Res 40(16);8021-32. PMID: 22661574
Urban07a: Urban JH, Papenfort K, Thomsen J, Schmitz RA, Vogel J (2007). "A Conserved Small RNA Promotes Discoordinate Expression of the glmUS Operon mRNA to Activate GlmS Synthesis." J Mol Biol 373(3);521-8. PMID: 17854828
Vogel03: Vogel J, Bartels V, Tang TH, Churakov G, Slagter-Jager JG, Huttenhofer A, Wagner EG (2003). "RNomics in Escherichia coli detects new sRNA species and indicates parallel transcriptional output in bacteria." Nucleic Acids Res 31(22);6435-43. PMID: 14602901
Gopel11: Gopel Y, Luttmann D, Heroven AK, Reichenbach B, Dersch P, Gorke B (2011). "Common and divergent features in transcriptional control of the homologous small RNAs GlmY and GlmZ in Enterobacteriaceae." Nucleic Acids Res 39(4);1294-309. PMID: 20965974
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