Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: FeaR DNA-binding transcriptional activator

Gene: feaR Accession Numbers: G6706 (EcoCyc), b1384, ECK1381

Synonyms: ydbM, maoX, maoB

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for feaR

"Phenylethylamine regulator," FeaR, is considered an activator of phenylacetate synthesis from 2-phenylethylamine (PEA). This regulator is regulated by catabolic repression, and highly expressed in the presence of succinate [Yamashita96]. FeaR controls expression of a pathway for the degradation of potentially toxic aromatic compounds [Zeng13]. It is induced by tyramine, and in the absence of glucose, it activates the expression of amine oxidase and phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase, proteins involved in 2-phenylethylamine catabolism [Hanlon97, Steinebach96, Zeng13]. Although it has not been possible to test the ligand binding to FeaR, these data and those of others suggest that it is a substrate or intermediate of the TynA/FeaB pathway, as it is more likely that an aldehyde (tyramine) is the direct inducer for the PEA catabolic pathway and a likely coeffector of FeaR [Zeng13].

FeaR belongs to the AraC/XylS family of transcriptional regulators [Hanlon97, Yamashita96]. This protein consists of two domains, an amino-terminal domain (NTD) involved in co-inducer recognition and dimerization and a carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) that contains a potential helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif [Hanlon97, Yamashita96]. Activation by FeaR requires the NTD, which could function as an inhibitor of the CTD in the absence of the coactivator [Zeng13].

The FeaR-binding site is a direct repeat of two 16-bp elements with the core consensus sequence TGKCA-N8-MAA (where K is G or T and M is C or A) for each 16-bp sequence [Zeng13].

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [1,444,402 <- 1,445,307] (31.13 centisomes, 112°)
Length: 906 bp / 301 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 34.62 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0004630 , EchoBASE:EB3198 , EcoGene:EG13422 , EcoliWiki:b1384 , ModBase:Q47129 , OU-Microarray:b1384 , PortEco:feaR , PR:PRO_000022590 , Pride:Q47129 , Protein Model Portal:Q47129 , RefSeq:NP_415902 , RegulonDB:G6706 , SMR:Q47129 , String:511145.b1384 , UniProt:Q47129

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003313 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR009057 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018060 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR020449 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF12833 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00032 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS01124 , Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00342

In Paralogous Gene Group: 22 (29 members)

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for feaR

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0045893 - positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [Hanlon97, Yamashita96]
GO:0006351 - transcription, DNA-templated Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006355 - regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
Molecular Function: GO:0003700 - sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01, Yamashita96, Hanlon97]
GO:0003677 - DNA binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0043565 - sequence-specific DNA binding Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0005737 - cytoplasm Inferred by curator
GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09]

MultiFun Terms: information transfer RNA related Transcription related
metabolism carbon utilization amines
metabolism carbon utilization amino acids
regulation genetic unit regulated operon
regulation type of regulation transcriptional level activator

DNA binding site length: 21 base-pairs

Symmetry: Inverted Repeat

Regulated Transcription Units (2 total): ?


Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Essentiality data for feaR knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of FeaR DNA-binding transcriptional activator with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
DNA-Binding-Region 216 -> 235
UniProt: H-T-H motif; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units:

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


Markus Krummenacker on Tue Oct 14, 1997:
Gene object created from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry.


Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Hanlon97: Hanlon SP, Hill TK, Flavell MA, Stringfellow JM, Cooper RA (1997). "2-phenylethylamine catabolism by Escherichia coli K-12: gene organization and expression." Microbiology 143 ( Pt 2);513-8. PMID: 9043126

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Steinebach96: Steinebach V, Benen JA, Bader R, Postma PW, De Vries S, Duine JA (1996). "Cloning of the maoA gene that encodes aromatic amine oxidase of Escherichia coli W3350 and characterization of the overexpressed enzyme." Eur J Biochem 237(3);584-91. PMID: 8647101

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Yamashita96: Yamashita M, Azakami H, Yokoro N, Roh JH, Suzuki H, Kumagai H, Murooka Y (1996). "maoB, a gene that encodes a positive regulator of the monoamine oxidase gene (maoA) in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 178(10);2941-7. PMID: 8631685

Zeng13: Zeng J, Spiro S (2013). "Finely tuned regulation of the aromatic amine degradation pathway in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 195(22);5141-50. PMID: 24013633

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Ferrandez97: Ferrandez A, Prieto MA, Garcia JL, Diaz E (1997). "Molecular characterization of PadA, a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli." FEBS Lett 1997;406(1-2);23-7. PMID: 9109378

Partridge09: Partridge JD, Bodenmiller DM, Humphrys MS, Spiro S (2009). "NsrR targets in the Escherichia coli genome: new insights into DNA sequence requirements for binding and a role for NsrR in the regulation of motility." Mol Microbiol 73(4);680-94. PMID: 19656291

Yang12a: Yang C, Huang TW, Wen SY, Chang CY, Tsai SF, Wu WF, Chang CH (2012). "Genome-wide PhoB binding and gene expression profiles reveal the hierarchical gene regulatory network of phosphate starvation in Escherichia coli." PLoS One 7(10);e47314. PMID: 23071782

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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