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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: methylated adenine and cytosine restriction protein

Gene: mrr Accession Numbers: EG10612 (EcoCyc), b4351, ECK4341

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for mrr

Mrr is a type IV restriction endonuclease involved in restriction of N6-adenine-methylated DNA [Heitman87, Kretz91, WaiteRees91] and C5-cytosine-methylated DNA [WaiteRees91, Kelleher91]. Studies in which Mrr led to the induction of the SOS response suggest Mrr is an endonuclease that creates SOS-inducing double strand breaks in DNA containing N6-adenine-methylated DNA [Heitman87].

Mrr is involved in the RecB-dependent high pressure induction of the SOS stress response in E. coli. mrr mutants were unable to induce the SOS response when exposed to high pressure while the SOS response resulting from direct damage to DNA remained unaffected. Expression of mrr does not increase upon high pressure treatment. Overexpression of mrr resulted in an approximately 500-fold increase in high pressure sensitivity [Aertsen05].

Mrr colocalizes with the nucleoid. Exposure to increased hydrostatic pressure leads to nucleoid condensation and to cellular blebbing; expression of the HhaII methyltransferase leads to formation of a more stable Mrr-nucleoid complex. mrr mutants that respond differently to these two conditions have been isolated [Ghosh14].

Mutations that inactivate Mrr have been isolated, and a structural model has been proposed [Orlowski08].

Mrr: "methylated adenine recognition and restriction" [Heitman87]

McrF: "modified cytosine restriction" [Kelleher91]

Reviews: [Aertsen06, Loenen14]

Citations: [Raleigh91, Piekarowicz91, Kelleher94, Kelleher95, Bujnicki01, Tesfazgi11, Ghosh13]

Locations: cytosol, bacterial nucleoid

Map Position: [4,584,972 -> 4,585,886] (98.82 centisomes, 356°)
Length: 915 bp / 304 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 33.52 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 34 kD (experimental) [WaiteRees91 ]

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0014271 , CGSC:18139 , DIP:DIP-10259N , EchoBASE:EB0607 , EcoGene:EG10612 , EcoliWiki:b4351 , Mint:MINT-1267575 , OU-Microarray:b4351 , PortEco:mrr , PR:PRO_000023293 , Pride:P24202 , Protein Model Portal:P24202 , RefSeq:NP_418771 , RegulonDB:EG10612 , SMR:P24202 , String:511145.b4351 , UniProt:P24202

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR007560 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011335 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011856 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR025745 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF04471 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF14338

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0051599 - response to hydrostatic pressure Inferred from experiment [Aertsen05]
GO:0009307 - DNA restriction-modification system Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0090305 - nucleic acid phosphodiester bond hydrolysis Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Molecular Function: GO:0015666 - restriction endodeoxyribonuclease activity Inferred from experiment [Heitman87]
GO:0032067 - Type IV site-specific deoxyribonuclease activity Inferred from experiment [WaiteRees91]
GO:0003676 - nucleic acid binding Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0003677 - DNA binding Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0004518 - nuclease activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0004519 - endonuclease activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0043590 - bacterial nucleoid Inferred from experiment [Ghosh14]
GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09]

MultiFun Terms: information transfer DNA related DNA restriction/modification
regulation type of regulation DNA structure level methylation

Essentiality data for mrr knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]

Last-Curated ? 23-Jan-2014 by Keseler I , SRI International

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Unit:

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b4351 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10612.


Aertsen05: Aertsen A, Michiels CW (2005). "Mrr instigates the SOS response after high pressure stress in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 58(5);1381-91. PMID: 16313623

Aertsen06: Aertsen A, Michiels CW (2006). "Upstream of the SOS response: figure out the trigger." Trends Microbiol 14(10);421-3. PMID: 16934473

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Bujnicki01: Bujnicki JM, Rychlewski L (2001). "Identification of a PD-(D/E)XK-like domain with a novel configuration of the endonuclease active site in the methyl-directed restriction enzyme Mrr and its homologs." Gene 267(2);183-91. PMID: 11313145

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

Ghosh13: Ghosh A, Aertsen A (2013). "Cellular filamentation after sublethal high-pressure shock in Escherichia coli K12 is Mrr dependent." Curr Microbiol 67(5);522-4. PMID: 24002639

Ghosh14: Ghosh A, Passaris I, Tesfazgi Mebrhatu M, Rocha S, Vanoirbeek K, Hofkens J, Aertsen A (2014). "Cellular localization and dynamics of the Mrr type IV restriction endonuclease of Escherichia coli." Nucleic Acids Res 42(6);3908-18. PMID: 24423871

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Heitman87: Heitman J, Model P (1987). "Site-specific methylases induce the SOS DNA repair response in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 169(7);3243-50. PMID: 3036779

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Kelleher91: Kelleher JE, Raleigh EA (1991). "A novel activity in Escherichia coli K-12 that directs restriction of DNA modified at CG dinucleotides." J Bacteriol 173(16);5220-3. PMID: 1830580

Kelleher94: Kelleher JE, Raleigh EA (1994). "Response to UV damage by four Escherichia coli K-12 restriction systems." J Bacteriol 176(19);5888-96. PMID: 7928948

Kelleher95: Kelleher JE, Raleigh EA (1995). "On the regulation and diversity of restriction in Escherichia coli." Gene 157(1-2);229-30. PMID: 7607496

Kretz91: Kretz PL, Kohler SW, Short JM (1991). "Identification and characterization of a gene responsible for inhibiting propagation of methylated DNA sequences in mcrA mcrB1 Escherichia coli strains." J Bacteriol 173(15);4707-16. PMID: 1649819

Loenen14: Loenen WA, Raleigh EA (2014). "The other face of restriction: modification-dependent enzymes." Nucleic Acids Res 42(1);56-69. PMID: 23990325

Orlowski08: Orlowski J, Mebrhatu MT, Michiels CW, Bujnicki JM, Aertsen A (2008). "Mutational analysis and a structural model of methyl-directed restriction enzyme Mrr." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 377(3);862-6. PMID: 18951880

Piekarowicz91: Piekarowicz A, Yuan R, Stein DC (1991). "A new method for the rapid identification of genes encoding restriction and modification enzymes." Nucleic Acids Res 19(8);1831-5. PMID: 1851562

Raleigh91: Raleigh EA, Benner J, Bloom F, Braymer HD, DeCruz E, Dharmalingam K, Heitman J, Noyer Weidner M, Piekarowicz A, Kretz PL (1991). "Nomenclature relating to restriction of modified DNA in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 173(8);2707-9. PMID: 2013582

Tesfazgi11: Tesfazgi Mebrhatu M, Wywial E, Ghosh A, Michiels CW, Lindner AB, Taddei F, Bujnicki JM, Van Melderen L, Aertsen A (2011). "Evidence for an evolutionary antagonism between Mrr and Type III modification systems." Nucleic Acids Res 39(14);5991-6001. PMID: 21504983

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

WaiteRees91: Waite-Rees PA, Keating CJ, Moran LS, Slatko BE, Hornstra LJ, Benner JS (1991). "Characterization and expression of the Escherichia coli Mrr restriction system." J Bacteriol 173(16);5207-19. PMID: 1650347

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.0 on Thu Sep 3, 2015, biocyc13.