Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Enzyme: glycogen phosphorylase

Gene: glgP Accession Numbers: EG10380 (EcoCyc), b3428, ECK3414

Synonyms: glgY

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for glgP

Subunit composition of glycogen phosphorylase = [GlgP]2

The glgP gene product, glycogen phosphorylase, is one of two distinct α-glucan phosphorylases in E. coli. A maltodextrin phosphorylase is encoded by the malP gene, and glycogen phosphorylase is encoded by glgP. The two isozymes are more closely related to each other than to phosphorylases from other organisms [Hudson93]. GlgP catalyzes a step in the breakdown of glycogen, removing glucose units from the polysaccharide outer chains [AlonsoCasajus06].

Glycogen phosphorylase shows a marked preference for the larger polymer glycogen over the smaller maltodextrins as the polyglucose acceptor, although its affinity even for glycogen is low. It is believed that glycogen phosphorylase plays a role in the slow degradation of endogenous glycogen during long stationary conditions [Chen68a, Chen68, Yu88].

The histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr) component of the PEP:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) binds to glycogen phosphorylase and allosterically regulates the oligomeric state of the enzyme. Binding of HPr to GlgP decreases the Km of GlgP for glycogen 5-fold. Phosphorylated HPr has 4-fold higher affinity for GlgP than the unphosphorylated form, although it does not appear to stimulate the activity of GlgP [Seok97].

ΔglgP mutants display a glycogen-excess phenotype [Eydallin07].

Reviews: [Schinzel99, Seok01]

Gene Citations: [Montero10, Romeo88, Romeo89, Yang96]

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [3,562,157 <- 3,564,604] (76.78 centisomes, 276°)
Length: 2448 bp / 815 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 93.172 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight of Multimer: 200 kD (experimental) [Yu88]

pI: 5.71

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0011198 , CGSC:33653 , DIP:DIP-47899N , EchoBASE:EB0375 , EcoGene:EG10380 , EcoliWiki:b3428 , Mint:MINT-1307808 , ModBase:P0AC86 , OU-Microarray:b3428 , PortEco:glgP , PR:PRO_000022778 , Pride:P0AC86 , Protein Model Portal:P0AC86 , RefSeq:NP_417886 , RegulonDB:EG10380 , SMR:P0AC86 , String:511145.b3428 , Swiss-Model:P0AC86 , UniProt:P0AC86

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000811 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011833 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR11468 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00343 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00102

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Genetic regulation schematic for glgP

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0005980 - glycogen catabolic process Inferred from experiment [Eydallin07]
GO:0016052 - carbohydrate catabolic process Inferred from experiment [Chen68]
GO:0005975 - carbohydrate metabolic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
GO:0005977 - glycogen metabolic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0008152 - metabolic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Molecular Function: GO:0008184 - glycogen phosphorylase activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, Yu88]
GO:0030170 - pyridoxal phosphate binding Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, Chen68]
GO:0042803 - protein homodimerization activity Inferred from experiment [Yu88]
GO:0003824 - catalytic activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0004645 - phosphorylase activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01, GOA01a]
GO:0016740 - transferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016757 - transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005737 - cytoplasm Inferred by computational analysis [Gaudet10]
GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09]

MultiFun Terms: metabolism biosynthesis of macromolecules (cellular constituents) cytoplasmic polysaccharides
metabolism carbon utilization carbon compounds

Essentiality data for glgP knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Curated 14-Aug-2006 by Keseler I , SRI International
Last-Curated ? 22-Feb-2013 by Fulcher C , SRI International

Enzymatic reaction of: glycogen phosphorylase

Synonyms: amylophosphorylase, polyphosphorylase, polyglucose phosphorylase, 1,4-α-D-glucan:orthophosphate α-D-glucosyltransferase

a glycogen + phosphate <=> an α-limit dextrin + α-D-glucopyranose 1-phosphate

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

The reaction is favored in the direction shown.

In Pathways: glycogen degradation I (bacterial)

The reaction is reversible in vitro. 5'-AMP activates the enzyme in both the phosphorolysis and glycogen synthesis directions [Chen68]. However, another study showed only a 10% increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity by addition of 5'-AMP [Seok97], and when assayed in the glycogen breakdown direction, no regulatory effect by AMP, ADP-glucose, UDP-glucose, glucose, and hexose-phosphates was observed [AlonsoCasajus06].

Cofactors or Prosthetic Groups: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate [Chen68]

Activators (Allosteric): HPr [Seok97]

Activators (Unknown Mechanism): AMP [Yu88, Chen68a, Chen68] , sodium sulfate [Chen68, Chen68a] , fluoride [Chen68, Chen68a]

Inhibitors (Competitive): UDP-D-glucose [Chen68, Comment 5] , β-D-glucopyranose [Chen68, Comment 5] , ADP-α-D-glucose [Chen68, Comment 5] , dTDP-α-D-glucose [Chen68, Comment 5]

Inhibitors (Unknown Mechanism): persulfate [Chen68a, Chen68] , nitrate [Chen68a, Chen68] , iodide [Chen68a, Chen68] , Cu2+ [Chen68a, Chen68] , Zn2+ [Chen68a, Chen68] , Hg2+ [Chen68a, Chen68] , Ag2+ [Chen68a, Chen68] , p-chloromercuribenzoate [Chen68a, Chen68] , hydrogen cyanide [Chen68, Chen68a]

Kinetic Parameters:

Km (μM)
α-D-glucopyranose 1-phosphate
[Chen68, BRENDA14]
α-D-glucopyranose 1-phosphate
[Boeck96, BRENDA14]

pH(opt): 6.7 [BRENDA14, Chen68], 6.7-6.9 [Chen68]

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of GlgP with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Sequence-Conflict 13 -> 14
[Choi89, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1);
Sequence-Conflict 60
[Romeo88, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 5; AAA23875);
Sequence-Conflict 94 -> 95
[Romeo88, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 5; AAA23875);
Sequence-Conflict 142
[Romeo88, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 5; AAA23875);
Sequence-Conflict 175
[Choi89, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; CAA34807);
Sequence-Conflict 182 -> 187
[Yu88, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 2; AAA23874);
Sequence-Conflict 191
[Choi89, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; CAA34807);
Sequence-Conflict 248
[Romeo88, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 5; AAA23875);
Sequence-Conflict 280
[Yu88, UniProt10]
[Romeo88, UniProt10]
EL → DV: (in Ref. 2; AAA23874/AAA58226);
E → G: (in Ref. 5; AAA23875);
Sequence-Conflict 324
[Romeo88, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 5; AAA23875);
Sequence-Conflict 377
[Romeo88, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 5; AAA23875);
Sequence-Conflict 450
[Yu88, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 2; AAA23874);
Sequence-Conflict 487 -> 488
[Choi89, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; CAA34807);
Sequence-Conflict 520 -> 521
[Choi89, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; CAA34807);
N6-pyridoxal-phosphate-Lys-Modification 662
UniProt: N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysine; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity.
Sequence-Conflict 729
[Yu88, UniProt10]
UniProt: (in Ref. 2; AAA23874);

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units:

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b3428 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10380; confirmed by SwissProt match.


AlonsoCasajus06: Alonso-Casajus N, Dauvillee D, Viale AM, Munoz FJ, Baroja-Fernandez E, Moran-Zorzano MT, Eydallin G, Ball S, Pozueta-Romero J (2006). "Glycogen phosphorylase, the product of the glgP Gene, catalyzes glycogen breakdown by removing glucose units from the nonreducing ends in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(14);5266-72. PMID: 16816199

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Boeck96: Boeck B, Schinzel R (1996). "Purification and characterisation of an alpha-glucan phosphorylase from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus." Eur J Biochem 239(1);150-5. PMID: 8706700

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014."

Chen68: Chen GS, Segel IH (1968). "Purification and properties of glycogen phosphorylase from Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 1968;127(1);175-86. PMID: 4878695

Chen68a: Chen GS, Segel IH (1968). "Escherichia coli polyglucose phosphorylases." Arch Biochem Biophys 1968;127(1);164-74. PMID: 4878694

Choi89: Choi YL, Kawamukai M, Utsumi R, Sakai H, Komano T (1989). "Molecular cloning and sequencing of the glycogen phosphorylase gene from Escherichia coli." FEBS Lett 243(2);193-8. PMID: 2645169

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Eydallin07: Eydallin G, Viale AM, Moran-Zorzano MT, Munoz FJ, Montero M, Baroja-Fernandez E, Pozueta-Romero J (2007). "Genome-wide screening of genes affecting glycogen metabolism in Escherichia coli K-12." FEBS Lett 581(16);2947-53. PMID: 17543954

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Gaudet10: Gaudet P, Livstone M, Thomas P (2010). "Annotation inferences using phylogenetic trees." PMID: 19578431

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Hudson93: Hudson JW, Golding GB, Crerar MM (1993). "Evolution of allosteric control in glycogen phosphorylase." J Mol Biol 234(3);700-21. PMID: 8254668

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Montero10: Montero M, Almagro G, Eydallin G, Viale AM, Munoz FJ, Bahaji A, Li J, Rahimpour M, Baroja-Fernandez E, Pozueta-Romero J (2010). "Escherichia coli glycogen genes are organized in a single glgBXCAP transcriptional unit possessing an alternative suboperonic promoter within glgC that directs glgAP expression." Biochem J 433(1);107-17. PMID: 21029047

Romeo88: Romeo T, Kumar A, Preiss J (1988). "Analysis of the Escherichia coli glycogen gene cluster suggests that catabolic enzymes are encoded among the biosynthetic genes." Gene 70(2);363-76. PMID: 2975249

Romeo89: Romeo T, Preiss J (1989). "Genetic regulation of glycogen biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: in vitro effects of cyclic AMP and guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate and analysis of in vivo transcripts." J Bacteriol 171(5);2773-82. PMID: 2468650

Schinzel99: Schinzel R, Nidetzky B (1999). "Bacterial alpha-glucan phosphorylases." FEMS Microbiol Lett 171(2);73-9. PMID: 10077830

Seok01: Seok YJ, Koo BM, Sondej M, Peterkofsky A (2001). "Regulation of E. coli glycogen phosphorylase activity by HPr." J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3(3);385-93. PMID: 11361069

Seok97: Seok YJ, Sondej M, Badawi P, Lewis MS, Briggs MC, Jaffe H, Peterkofsky A (1997). "High affinity binding and allosteric regulation of Escherichia coli glycogen phosphorylase by the histidine phosphocarrier protein, HPr." J Biol Chem 272(42);26511-21. PMID: 9334229

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-11 released on 2010-11-02 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt11a: UniProt Consortium (2011). "UniProt version 2011-11 released on 2011-11-22 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Yang96: Yang H, Liu MY, Romeo T (1996). "Coordinate genetic regulation of glycogen catabolism and biosynthesis in Escherichia coli via the CsrA gene product." J Bacteriol 178(4);1012-7. PMID: 8576033

Yu88: Yu F, Jen Y, Takeuchi E, Inouye M, Nakayama H, Tagaya M, Fukui T (1988). "Alpha-glucan phosphorylase from Escherichia coli. Cloning of the gene, and purification and characterization of the protein." J Biol Chem 1988;263(27);13706-11. PMID: 3047129

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Baker02: Baker CS, Morozov I, Suzuki K, Romeo T, Babitzke P (2002). "CsrA regulates glycogen biosynthesis by preventing translation of glgC in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 44(6);1599-610. PMID: 12067347

Bridger78: Bridger WA, Paranchych W (1978). "relA Gene control of bacterial glycogen synthesis." Can J Biochem 56(6);403-6. PMID: 352487

MedinaRivera11: Medina-Rivera A, Abreu-Goodger C, Thomas-Chollier M, Salgado H, Collado-Vides J, van Helden J (2011). "Theoretical and empirical quality assessment of transcription factor-binding motifs." Nucleic Acids Res 39(3);808-24. PMID: 20923783

Montero09: Montero M, Eydallin G, Viale AM, Almagro G, Munoz FJ, Rahimpour M, Sesma MT, Baroja-Fernandez E, Pozueta-Romero J (2009). "Escherichia coli glycogen metabolism is controlled by the PhoP-PhoQ regulatory system at submillimolar environmental Mg2+ concentrations, and is highly interconnected with a wide variety of cellular processes." Biochem J 424(1);129-41. PMID: 19702577

Traxler08: Traxler MF, Summers SM, Nguyen HT, Zacharia VM, Hightower GA, Smith JT, Conway T (2008). "The global, ppGpp-mediated stringent response to amino acid starvation in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 68(5);1128-48. PMID: 18430135

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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