Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Enzyme: spermidine acetyltransferase

Gene: speG Accession Numbers: G6842 (EcoCyc), b1584, ECK1579

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Regulation summary diagram for speG

Subunit composition of spermidine acetyltransferase = [SpeG]4

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [1,654,208 -> 1,654,768] (35.65 centisomes, 128°)
Length: 561 bp / 186 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 21.887 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0005286 , EchoBASE:EB2341 , EcoGene:EG12447 , EcoliWiki:b1584 , ModBase:P0A951 , OU-Microarray:b1584 , PortEco:speG , PR:PRO_000023976 , Protein Model Portal:P0A951 , RefSeq:NP_416101 , RegulonDB:G6842 , SMR:P0A951 , String:511145.b1584 , UniProt:P0A951

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000182 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016181 , PDB:Structure:4R9M , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00583 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51186

In Paralogous Gene Group: 71 (7 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006598 - polyamine catabolic process Inferred from experiment [Fukuchi95]
Molecular Function: GO:0000287 - magnesium ion binding Inferred from experiment [Niiyama13]
GO:0004145 - diamine N-acetyltransferase activity Inferred by computational analysis Inferred from experiment [Matsui82, GOA01, Fukuchi94]
GO:0008080 - N-acetyltransferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0016740 - transferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016746 - transferase activity, transferring acyl groups Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005737 - cytoplasm Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a]

MultiFun Terms: metabolism central intermediary metabolism polyamine biosynthesis

Essentiality data for speG knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Enzymatic reaction of: spermidine acetyltransferase

Synonyms: spermidine N1-acetyltransferase, diamine N-acetyltransferase, SAT, acetyl-CoA:alkane-α,ω-diamine N-acetyltransferase

acetyl-CoA + spermidine <=> N1-acetylspermidine + coenzyme A + H+

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction of enzyme catalysis.

The reaction is physiologically favored in the direction shown.

Alternative Substrates for spermidine: spermine

E. coli contains a diamine acetyltransferase that uses spermidine as a substrate. In response to a variety of stresses E. coli can acetylate spermidine at both the N1 and N8 positions. Spermidine acetyltransferase can also use spermine as a substrate, but not putrescine. The enzyme can also be inactivated through dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase. [Fukuchi94, Fukuchi95, Carper91, Matsui82, Matsui82a]

Inhibitors (Competitive): N1, N8-bis(ethyl)spermidine [Fukuchi94] , N1, N12-bis(ethyl)spermine [Fukuchi94]

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of SpeG with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Cleavage-of-Initial-Methionine 1
UniProt: Removed.
Chain 2 -> 186
UniProt: Spermidine N(1)-acetyltransferase;
Conserved-Region 7 -> 167
UniProt: N-acetyltransferase;

Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Unit:

Transcription-unit diagram


Markus Krummenacker on Tue Oct 14, 1997:
Gene object created from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry.


Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Carper91: Carper SW, Willis DG, Manning KA, Gerner EW (1991). "Spermidine acetylation in response to a variety of stresses in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1991;266(19);12439-41. PMID: 2061318

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Fukuchi94: Fukuchi J, Kashiwagi K, Takio K, Igarashi K (1994). "Properties and structure of spermidine acetyltransferase in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1994;269(36);22581-5. PMID: 8077207

Fukuchi95: Fukuchi J, Kashiwagi K, Yamagishi M, Ishihama A, Igarashi K (1995). "Decrease in cell viability due to the accumulation of spermidine in spermidine acetyltransferase-deficient mutant of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1995;270(32);18831-5. PMID: 7642535

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Matsui82: Matsui I, Kamei M, Otani S, Morisawa S, Pegg AE (1982). "Occurrence and induction of spermidine-N1-acetyltransferase in Escherichia coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1982;106(4);1155-60. PMID: 7052085

Matsui82a: Matsui I, Otani S, Kamei M, Morisawa S (1982). "Inactivation of spermidine N1-acetyltransferase with alkaline phosphatase." FEBS Lett 1982;150(1);211-3. PMID: 6297970

Niiyama13: Niiyama M, Sugiyama S, Hirose M, Ishikawa S, Tomitori H, Higashi K, Yamashita T, Adachi H, Takano K, Murakami S, Murata M, Inoue T, Mori Y, Kashiwagi K, Matsumura H, Igarashi K (2013). "Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of spermidine acetyltransferase from Escherichia coli." Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 69(Pt 8);884-7. PMID: 23908034

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt15: UniProt Consortium (2015). "UniProt version 2015-01 released on 2015-01-16 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

MendozaVargas09: Mendoza-Vargas A, Olvera L, Olvera M, Grande R, Vega-Alvarado L, Taboada B, Jimenez-Jacinto V, Salgado H, Juarez K, Contreras-Moreira B, Huerta AM, Collado-Vides J, Morett E (2009). "Genome-wide identification of transcription start sites, promoters and transcription factor binding sites in E. coli." PLoS One 4(10);e7526. PMID: 19838305

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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