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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: essential cell division protein FtsZ



Gene: ftsZ Accession Numbers: EG10347 (EcoCyc), b0095, ECK0096

Synonyms: sfiB, sulB

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Summary:
Assembly of FtsZ into a ring structure (the Z ring, [Bi91]) at the future cell division site is the earliest known event in cell division. FtsZ is the most highly conserved of the proteins that eventually comprise the septal ring structure; homologs of FtsZ are nearly universally present in bacteria as well as in many archaea, some chloroplasts and a few mitochondria [Vaughan04].

FtsZ is essential [Dai91]; it binds GTP and has Mg2+-dependent GTPase activity [RayChaudhuri92, deBoer92]. Assembly of FtsZ into protein filaments is dynamic and regulated by GTP hydrolysis [Mukherjee94], resembling tubulin [Mukherjee98a]. Turnover of FtsZ within the Z ring is extremely rapid, with the rate-limiting step for turnover likely to be GTP hydrolysis [Anderson04, Romberg04].

The position of the FtsZ ring structure marks the cell division site and is serving as the assembly point to which other proteins of the cell division machinery are recruited. Based on studies of mutants, FtsA and ZipA initially associate with FtsZ, followed by addition of FtsEX, FtsK, FtsQ, FtsL/FtsB, FtsW, FtsI, FtsN and AmiC, apparently in this defined order.

The question of how FtsZ itself is positioned precisely at mid-cell, enabling a normal cell division event, has not been definitively answered yet. Both nucleoid occlusion and the Min system appear to play a role in division site selection; the hypothesis has been discussed in detail [Norris04]. Nucleoid occlusion describes a process by which the presence of the nucleoid inhibits Z ring formation at that site. When the nucleoid structure is perturbed by a block in transcription, nucleoid occlusion is affected; thus, the process may depend on the specific organization of the nucleoid [Sun04]. Both SulA and MinC are negative regulators of Z ring assembly [Bi93]. SulA interacts directly with FtsZ [Higashitani95, Cordell03] and inhibits GTPase activity and polymerization in vitro [Mukherjee98, Trusca98] and FtsZ ring formation in vivo [Justice00]. MinC also interacts with FtsZ directly and prevents FtsZ polymerization without inhibiting its GTPase activity [Hu99a, Pichoff01]. The MinCD proteins oscillate between the two cell poles; this behavior may allow Z ring formation at mid-cell because the time-integrated concentration of MinCD is lowest at mid-cell. A conflicting report asserts that MinCD does not block Z ring formation, but instead blocks FtsA association with the Z ring [Justice00].

In studies using GFP-labeled FtsZ, FtsZ outside of the Z ring was found to move rapidly in a helix-like pattern along the cell, similar to the movements of the Min proteins. The presence of a dynamic, helical cytoskeleton was proposed [Thanedar04]. Supporting this hypothesis, FtsZ was found to be involved in maintaining cell shape [Varma04].

The domain structure of FtsZ has been described [Vaughan04]. A highly conserved central domain is structurally and functionally homologous to tubulin; it contains the dimerization domain [Di99]. The C-terminal core domain consists of 12 amino acids essential for FtsA and ZipA binding [Ma99].

The crystal structure of a C-terminal fragment of FtsZ in complex with ZipA has been solved [Mosyak00].

Compounds with activity against E. coli FtsZ, with potential utility as broad-spectrum antimicrobials, have been recently isolated and characterized [Margalit04].

Regulation of FtsZ expression and activity is complex and has been summarized in [Addinall02].

Selected reviews: [Weiss04, Romberg03, Errington03]

Gene Citations: [Vicente98, MenginLecreulx98, Hara97, Flardh97, Carballes99, Wang91]

Locations: cytosol

Map Position: [105,305 -> 106,456] (2.27 centisomes)
Length: 1152 bp / 383 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 40.324 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0000333 , CGSC:143 , DIP:DIP-31873N , EchoBASE:EB0343 , EcoGene:EG10347 , EcoliWiki:b0095 , Mint:MINT-8092601 , ModBase:P0A9A6 , OU-Microarray:b0095 , PortEco:ftsZ , PR:PRO_000022726 , Pride:P0A9A6 , Protein Model Portal:P0A9A6 , RefSeq:NP_414637 , RegulonDB:EG10347 , SMR:P0A9A6 , String:511145.b0095 , Swiss-Model:P0A9A6 , UniProt:P0A9A6

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000158 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003008 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR008280 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018316 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR020805 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR024757 , PDB:Structure:1F47 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00091 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF12327 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00423 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS01134 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS01135 , Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00864 , Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00865

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0051258 - protein polymerization Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01a, Cho11b, Ma96a]
GO:0051301 - cell division Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, Camberg11, Dai91]
GO:0000917 - barrier septum assembly Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0006184 - GTP catabolic process Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0007049 - cell cycle Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0043093 - FtsZ-dependent cytokinesis Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06]
Molecular Function: GO:0003924 - GTPase activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01a, deBoer92, RayChaudhuri92]
GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Fenton13, Butland05, Rajagopala14, Huang96, DurandHeredia12, Hale11, DurandHeredia11, Shen09, Ebersbach08, Shiomi08, Shiomi07, Karimova05, Masuda12, Alexeeva10, Liu99f, Corbin07, Mosyak00]
GO:0005525 - GTP binding Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA06, GOA01a, deBoer92, RayChaudhuri92]
GO:0042802 - identical protein binding Inferred from experiment [Salvarelli11, Masuda12, Hale11, DurandHeredia11, Shen09, Ebersbach08]
GO:0000166 - nucleotide binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005737 - cytoplasm Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a, GOA06, GOA01a, Pla91]
GO:0032153 - cell division site Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, Wang98g]
GO:0005829 - cytosol
GO:0043234 - protein complex Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes cell division

Essentiality data for ftsZ knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB Lennox No 37 Aerobic 7   No [Baba06, Comment 1]

Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Mutagenesis-Variant 1 -> 32
[UniProt11a]
Alternate sequence: MFEPMELTNDAVIKVIGVGGGGGNAVEHMVRE → missing; UniProt: No interaction with MreB or YeeV.
Sequence-Conflict 32 -> 39
[Robinson84, UniProt10a]
Alternate sequence: ERIEGVEF → DALKVLNS; UniProt: (in Ref. 5; AAA23818);
Mutagenesis-Variant 33 -> 49
[UniProt13]
Alternate sequence: RIEGVEFFAVNTDAQAL → missing; UniProt: No interaction with CtpA.
Nucleotide-Phosphate-Binding-Region 103 -> 111
[UniProt10]
UniProt: GTP; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Mutagenesis-Variant 105
[UniProt10a]
Alternate sequence: G → F; UniProt: In ftsZ-84; loss of GTPase-activity and conversion to an ATPase;
Mutagenesis-Variant 108
[UniProt10a]
Alternate sequence: T → A; UniProt: In ftsZ-Z3; lethal; greatly reduced GTP binding;
Sequence-Conflict 158
[Yi85, UniProt11a]
Alternate sequence: D → N; UniProt: (in Ref. 1; CAA38872).
Sequence-Conflict 222
[Yi85, UniProt11a]
Alternate sequence: Y → H; UniProt: (in Ref. 1; CAA38872).
Mutagenesis-Variant 317 -> 383
[UniProt11a]
Alternate sequence: MDKRPEITLVTNKQVQQPVMDRYQQHGMAPLTQEQKPVAKVVNDNAPQTAKEPDYLDIPAFLRKQAD → missing; UniProt: No interaction with MreB or YeeV.


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Units:

Notes:

History:
10/20/97 Gene b0095 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10347; confirmed by SwissProt match.


References

Addinall02: Addinall SG, Holland B (2002). "The tubulin ancestor, FtsZ, draughtsman, designer and driving force for bacterial cytokinesis." J Mol Biol 318(2);219-36. PMID: 12051832

Alexeeva10: Alexeeva S, Gadella TW, Verheul J, Verhoeven GS, den Blaauwen T (2010). "Direct interactions of early and late assembling division proteins in Escherichia coli cells resolved by FRET." Mol Microbiol 77(2);384-98. PMID: 20497333

Anderson04: Anderson DE, Gueiros-Filho FJ, Erickson HP (2004). "Assembly dynamics of FtsZ rings in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and effects of FtsZ-regulating proteins." J Bacteriol 186(17);5775-81. PMID: 15317782

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Bi91: Bi EF, Lutkenhaus J (1991). "FtsZ ring structure associated with division in Escherichia coli." Nature 354(6349);161-4. PMID: 1944597

Bi93: Bi E, Lutkenhaus J (1993). "Cell division inhibitors SulA and MinCD prevent formation of the FtsZ ring." J Bacteriol 175(4);1118-25. PMID: 8432706

Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043

Camberg11: Camberg JL, Hoskins JR, Wickner S (2011). "The interplay of ClpXP with the cell division machinery in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 193(8);1911-8. PMID: 21317324

Carballes99: Carballes F, Bertrand C, Bouche JP, Cam K (1999). "Regulation of Escherichia coli cell division genes ftsA and ftsZ by the two-component system rcsC-rcsB." Mol Microbiol 1999;34(3);442-50. PMID: 10564486

Cho11b: Cho H, McManus HR, Dove SL, Bernhardt TG (2011). "Nucleoid occlusion factor SlmA is a DNA-activated FtsZ polymerization antagonist." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(9);3773-8. PMID: 21321206

Corbin07: Corbin BD, Wang Y, Beuria TK, Margolin W (2007). "Interaction between cell division proteins FtsE and FtsZ." J Bacteriol 189(8);3026-35. PMID: 17307852

Cordell03: Cordell SC, Robinson EJ, Lowe J (2003). "Crystal structure of the SOS cell division inhibitor SulA and in complex with FtsZ." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(13);7889-94. PMID: 12808143

Dai91: Dai K, Lutkenhaus J (1991). "ftsZ is an essential cell division gene in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 173(11);3500-6. PMID: 2045370

deBoer92: de Boer P, Crossley R, Rothfield L (1992). "The essential bacterial cell-division protein FtsZ is a GTPase." Nature 359(6392);254-6. PMID: 1528268

Di99: Di Lallo G, Anderluzzi D, Ghelardini P, Paolozzi L (1999). "FtsZ dimerization in vivo." Mol Microbiol 32(2);265-74. PMID: 10231484

DurandHeredia11: Durand-Heredia JM, Yu HH, De Carlo S, Lesser CF, Janakiraman A (2011). "Identification and characterization of ZapC, a stabilizer of the FtsZ ring in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 193(6);1405-13. PMID: 21216995

DurandHeredia12: Durand-Heredia J, Rivkin E, Fan G, Morales J, Janakiraman A (2012). "Identification of ZapD as a cell division factor that promotes the assembly of FtsZ in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 194(12);3189-98. PMID: 22505682

Ebersbach08: Ebersbach G, Galli E, Moller-Jensen J, Lowe J, Gerdes K (2008). "Novel coiled-coil cell division factor ZapB stimulates Z ring assembly and cell division." Mol Microbiol 68(3);720-35. PMID: 18394147

Errington03: Errington J, Daniel RA, Scheffers DJ (2003). "Cytokinesis in bacteria." Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67(1);52-65. PMID: 12626683

Fenton13: Fenton AK, Gerdes K (2013). "Direct interaction of FtsZ and MreB is required for septum synthesis and cell division in Escherichia coli." EMBO J 32(13);1953-65. PMID: 23756461

Flardh97: Flardh K, Garrido T, Vicente M (1997). "Contribution of individual promoters in the ddlB-ftsZ region to the transcription of the essential cell-division gene ftsZ in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 1997;24(5);927-36. PMID: 9220001

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Hale11: Hale CA, Shiomi D, Liu B, Bernhardt TG, Margolin W, Niki H, de Boer PA (2011). "Identification of Escherichia coli ZapC (YcbW) as a component of the division apparatus that binds and bundles FtsZ polymers." J Bacteriol 193(6);1393-404. PMID: 21216997

Hara97: Hara H, Yasuda S, Horiuchi K, Park JT (1997). "A promoter for the first nine genes of the Escherichia coli mra cluster of cell division and cell envelope biosynthesis genes, including ftsI and ftsW." J Bacteriol 179(18);5802-11. PMID: 9294438

Higashitani95: Higashitani A, Higashitani N, Horiuchi K (1995). "A cell division inhibitor SulA of Escherichia coli directly interacts with FtsZ through GTP hydrolysis." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 209(1);198-204. PMID: 7726836

Hu99a: Hu Z, Mukherjee A, Pichoff S, Lutkenhaus J (1999). "The MinC component of the division site selection system in Escherichia coli interacts with FtsZ to prevent polymerization." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(26);14819-24. PMID: 10611296

Huang96: Huang J, Cao C, Lutkenhaus J (1996). "Interaction between FtsZ and inhibitors of cell division." J Bacteriol 178(17);5080-5. PMID: 8752322

Justice00: Justice SS, Garcia-Lara J, Rothfield LI (2000). "Cell division inhibitors SulA and MinC/MinD block septum formation at different steps in the assembly of the Escherichia coli division machinery." Mol Microbiol 37(2);410-23. PMID: 10931335

Karimova05: Karimova G, Dautin N, Ladant D (2005). "Interaction network among Escherichia coli membrane proteins involved in cell division as revealed by bacterial two-hybrid analysis." J Bacteriol 187(7);2233-43. PMID: 15774864

Liu99f: Liu Z, Mukherjee A, Lutkenhaus J (1999). "Recruitment of ZipA to the division site by interaction with FtsZ." Mol Microbiol 31(6);1853-61. PMID: 10209756

Ma96a: Ma X, Ehrhardt DW, Margolin W (1996). "Colocalization of cell division proteins FtsZ and FtsA to cytoskeletal structures in living Escherichia coli cells by using green fluorescent protein." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(23);12998-3003. PMID: 8917533

Ma99: Ma X, Margolin W (1999). "Genetic and functional analyses of the conserved C-terminal core domain of Escherichia coli FtsZ." J Bacteriol 181(24);7531-44. PMID: 10601211

Margalit04: Margalit DN, Romberg L, Mets RB, Hebert AM, Mitchison TJ, Kirschner MW, RayChaudhuri D (2004). "Targeting cell division: small-molecule inhibitors of FtsZ GTPase perturb cytokinetic ring assembly and induce bacterial lethality." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(32);11821-6. PMID: 15289600

Masuda12: Masuda H, Tan Q, Awano N, Wu KP, Inouye M (2012). "YeeU enhances the bundling of cytoskeletal polymers of MreB and FtsZ, antagonizing the CbtA (YeeV) toxicity in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 84(5);979-89. PMID: 22515815

MenginLecreulx98: Mengin-Lecreulx D, Ayala J, Bouhss A, van Heijenoort J, Parquet C, Hara H (1998). "Contribution of the Pmra promoter to expression of genes in the Escherichia coli mra cluster of cell envelope biosynthesis and cell division genes." J Bacteriol 180(17);4406-12. PMID: 9721276

Mosyak00: Mosyak L, Zhang Y, Glasfeld E, Haney S, Stahl M, Seehra J, Somers WS (2000). "The bacterial cell-division protein ZipA and its interaction with an FtsZ fragment revealed by X-ray crystallography." EMBO J 19(13);3179-91. PMID: 10880432

Mukherjee94: Mukherjee A, Lutkenhaus J (1994). "Guanine nucleotide-dependent assembly of FtsZ into filaments." J Bacteriol 176(9);2754-8. PMID: 8169229

Mukherjee98: Mukherjee A, Cao C, Lutkenhaus J (1998). "Inhibition of FtsZ polymerization by SulA, an inhibitor of septation in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(6);2885-90. PMID: 9501185

Mukherjee98a: Mukherjee A, Lutkenhaus J (1998). "Dynamic assembly of FtsZ regulated by GTP hydrolysis." EMBO J 17(2);462-9. PMID: 9430638

Norris04: Norris V, Woldringh C, Mileykovskaya E (2004). "A hypothesis to explain division site selection in Escherichia coli by combining nucleoid occlusion and Min." FEBS Lett 561(1-3);3-10. PMID: 15013745

Pichoff01: Pichoff S, Lutkenhaus J (2001). "Escherichia coli division inhibitor MinCD blocks septation by preventing Z-ring formation." J Bacteriol 183(22);6630-5. PMID: 11673433

Pla91: Pla J, Sanchez M, Palacios P, Vicente M, Aldea M (1991). "Preferential cytoplasmic location of FtsZ, a protein essential for Escherichia coli septation." Mol Microbiol 5(7);1681-6. PMID: 1943703

Rajagopala14: Rajagopala SV, Sikorski P, Kumar A, Mosca R, Vlasblom J, Arnold R, Franca-Koh J, Pakala SB, Phanse S, Ceol A, Hauser R, Siszler G, Wuchty S, Emili A, Babu M, Aloy P, Pieper R, Uetz P (2014). "The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli." Nat Biotechnol 32(3);285-90. PMID: 24561554

RayChaudhuri92: RayChaudhuri D, Park JT (1992). "Escherichia coli cell-division gene ftsZ encodes a novel GTP-binding protein." Nature 359(6392);251-4. PMID: 1528267

Robinson84: Robinson AC, Kenan DJ, Hatfull GF, Sullivan NF, Spiegelberg R, Donachie WD (1984). "DNA sequence and transcriptional organization of essential cell division genes ftsQ and ftsA of Escherichia coli: evidence for overlapping transcriptional units." J Bacteriol 160(2);546-55. PMID: 6094474

Romberg03: Romberg L, Levin PA (2003). "Assembly dynamics of the bacterial cell division protein FTSZ: poised at the edge of stability." Annu Rev Microbiol 57;125-54. PMID: 14527275

Romberg04: Romberg L, Mitchison TJ (2004). "Rate-limiting guanosine 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis during nucleotide turnover by FtsZ, a prokaryotic tubulin homologue involved in bacterial cell division." Biochemistry 43(1);282-8. PMID: 14705956

Salvarelli11: Salvarelli E, Krupka M, Rivas G, Vicente M, Mingorance J (2011). "Independence between GTPase active sites in the Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsZ." FEBS Lett 585(24);3880-3. PMID: 22064072

Shen09: Shen B, Lutkenhaus J (2009). "The conserved C-terminal tail of FtsZ is required for the septal localization and division inhibitory activity of MinC(C)/MinD." Mol Microbiol 72(2);410-24. PMID: 19415799

Shiomi07: Shiomi D, Margolin W (2007). "Dimerization or oligomerization of the actin-like FtsA protein enhances the integrity of the cytokinetic Z ring." Mol Microbiol 66(6);1396-415. PMID: 17986188

Shiomi08: Shiomi D, Margolin W (2008). "Compensation for the loss of the conserved membrane targeting sequence of FtsA provides new insights into its function." Mol Microbiol 67(3);558-69. PMID: 18186792

Sun04: Sun Q, Margolin W (2004). "Effects of perturbing nucleoid structure on nucleoid occlusion-mediated toporegulation of FtsZ ring assembly." J Bacteriol 186(12);3951-9. PMID: 15175309

Thanedar04: Thanedar S, Margolin W (2004). "FtsZ exhibits rapid movement and oscillation waves in helix-like patterns in Escherichia coli." Curr Biol 14(13);1167-73. PMID: 15242613

Trusca98: Trusca D, Scott S, Thompson C, Bramhill D (1998). "Bacterial SOS checkpoint protein SulA inhibits polymerization of purified FtsZ cell division protein." J Bacteriol 180(15);3946-53. PMID: 9683493

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-11 released on 2010-11-02 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt11a: UniProt Consortium (2011). "UniProt version 2011-11 released on 2011-11-22 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt13: UniProt Consortium (2013). "UniProt version 2013-08 released on 2013-08-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Varma04: Varma A, Young KD (2004). "FtsZ collaborates with penicillin binding proteins to generate bacterial cell shape in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 186(20);6768-74. PMID: 15466028

Vaughan04: Vaughan S, Wickstead B, Gull K, Addinall SG (2004). "Molecular evolution of FtsZ protein sequences encoded within the genomes of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryota." J Mol Evol 58(1);19-29. PMID: 14743312

Vicente98: Vicente M, Gomez MJ, Ayala JA (1998). "Regulation of transcription of cell division genes in the Escherichia coli dcw cluster." Cell Mol Life Sci 54(4);317-24. PMID: 9614967

Wang91: Wang XD, de Boer PA, Rothfield LI (1991). "A factor that positively regulates cell division by activating transcription of the major cluster of essential cell division genes of Escherichia coli." EMBO J 1991;10(11);3363-72. PMID: 1915297

Wang98g: Wang L, Khattar MK, Donachie WD, Lutkenhaus J (1998). "FtsI and FtsW are localized to the septum in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 180(11);2810-6. PMID: 9603865

Weiss04: Weiss DS (2004). "Bacterial cell division and the septal ring." Mol Microbiol 54(3);588-97. PMID: 15491352

Yi85: Yi QM, Lutkenhaus J (1985). "The nucleotide sequence of the essential cell-division gene ftsZ of Escherichia coli." Gene 36(3);241-7. PMID: 3000876

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Aldea90: Aldea M, Garrido T, Pla J, Vicente M (1990). "Division genes in Escherichia coli are expressed coordinately to cell septum requirements by gearbox promoters." EMBO J 1990;9(11);3787-94. PMID: 1698623

Ballesteros98: Ballesteros M, Kusano S, Ishihama A, Vicente M (1998). "The ftsQ1p gearbox promoter of Escherichia coli is a major sigma S-dependent promoter in the ddlB-ftsA region." Mol Microbiol 1998;30(2);419-30. PMID: 9791185

Dyszel10: Dyszel JL, Soares JA, Swearingen MC, Lindsay A, Smith JN, Ahmer BM (2010). "E. coli K-12 and EHEC genes regulated by SdiA." PLoS One 5(1);e8946. PMID: 20126629

Eraso14: Eraso JM, Markillie LM, Mitchell HD, Taylor RC, Orr G, Margolin W (2014). "The Highly Conserved MraZ Protein Is a Transcriptional Regulator in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 196(11);2053-66. PMID: 24659771

Gohler11: Gohler AK, Kokpinar O, Schmidt-Heck W, Geffers R, Guthke R, Rinas U, Schuster S, Jahreis K, Kaleta C (2011). "More than just a metabolic regulator - elucidation and validation of new targets of PdhR in Escherichia coli." BMC Syst Biol 5(1);197. PMID: 22168595

Ishino89: Ishino F, Jung HK, Ikeda M, Doi M, Wachi M, Matsuhashi M (1989). "New mutations fts-36, lts-33, and ftsW clustered in the mra region of the Escherichia coli chromosome induce thermosensitive cell growth and division." J Bacteriol 171(10);5523-30. PMID: 2676977

Sitnikov96: Sitnikov DM, Schineller JB, Baldwin TO (1996). "Control of cell division in Escherichia coli: regulation of transcription of ftsQA involves both rpoS and SdiA-mediated autoinduction." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996;93(1);336-41. PMID: 8552633

Vinella93: Vinella D, Bouloc P, D'Ari R (1993). "GTPase enters the ring." Curr Biol 3(1);65-6. PMID: 15335888

Vinella93a: Vinella D, Joseleau-Petit D, Thevenet D, Bouloc P, D'Ari R (1993). "Penicillin-binding protein 2 inactivation in Escherichia coli results in cell division inhibition, which is relieved by FtsZ overexpression." J Bacteriol 175(20);6704-10. PMID: 8407846

Yamamoto01a: Yamamoto K, Yata K, Fujita N, Ishihama A (2001). "Novel mode of transcription regulation by SdiA, an Escherichia coli homologue of the quorum-sensing regulator." Mol Microbiol 41(5);1187-98. PMID: 11555297


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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