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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Transporter: L-carnitine : γ-butyrobetaine antiporter



Gene: caiT Accession Numbers: EG11561 (EcoCyc), b0040, ECK0041

Synonyms: yaaP

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Subunit composition of L-carnitine : γ-butyrobetaine antiporter = [CaiT]3

Summary:
CaiT is a carnitine transporter belonging to the Betaine, Carnitine, Chromium Transport (BCCT) Family [Buchet98]. It operates as an antiporter, exchanging L- or D- carnitine or the carnitine utilization products crotonobetaine or γ-butyrobetaine for exogenous L-carnitine [Jung02].

E. coli uses two operons, the caiTABCDE operon and the fixABCX operon, for anaerobic carnitine metabolism. Transcriptional studies of lacZ fusion showed that both operons are coexpressed during anaerobic growth in the presence of carnitine, they respond to common environmental stimuli, and are modulated positively by the same general regulators, CRP and FNR, and negatively by H-NS [Buchet98].

Gene Citations: [Eichler94, Eichler96]

Locations: inner membrane

Map Position: [40,417 <- 41,931] (0.87 centisomes)
Length: 1515 bp / 504 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 56.587 kD (from nucleotide sequence), 36.0 kD (experimental) [Vinothkumar06 ]

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0000141 , CGSC:36822 , DIP:DIP-9247N , EchoBASE:EB1522 , EcoGene:EG11561 , EcoliWiki:b0040 , OU-Microarray:b0040 , PDB:2WSX , PDB:3HFX , PortEco:caiT , PR:PRO_000022246 , Protein Model Portal:P31553 , RefSeq:NP_414582 , RegulonDB:EG11561 , SMR:P31553 , String:511145.b0040 , UniProt:P31553

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000060 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018093 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023449 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02028 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS01303

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0015879 - carnitine transport Inferred from experiment [Jung02]
GO:1902603 - carnitine transmembrane transport Inferred from experiment [Jung02]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0009437 - carnitine metabolic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA12]
GO:0055085 - transmembrane transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA06]
GO:1900751 - 4-(trimethylammonio)butanoate transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:1902270 - (R)-carnitine transmembrane transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Molecular Function: GO:0015226 - carnitine transmembrane transporter activity Inferred from experiment [Jung02]
GO:0005215 - transporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0015297 - antiporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA06]
GO:0044667 - (R)-carnitine:4-(trimethylammonio)butanoate antiporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, GOA06, DiazMejia09, Daley05, Jung02]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, Eichler94]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
metabolism carbon utilization carbon compounds
transport Electrochemical potential driven transporters Porters (Uni-, Sym- and Antiporters)

Essentiality data for caiT knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Credits:
Created 10-Oct-2010 by Mackie A , Macquarie University


Enzymatic reaction of: L-carnitine : γ-butyrobetaine antiporter

Alternative Products for γ-butyrobetaine: L-carnitine , D-carnitine , crotono-betaine

Kinetic Parameters:

Substrate
Km (μM)
Citations
L-carnitine
80.0
[Vinothkumar06]


Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Transmembrane-Region 10 -> 30
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 51 -> 71
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 92 -> 112
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 143 -> 163
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 195 -> 215
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 231 -> 251
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 263 -> 283
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 316 -> 336
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 347 -> 367
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Extrinsic-Sequence-Variant 353
[UniProt10]
Alternate sequence: L → M; UniProt: (in strain: O44:K74);
Extrinsic-Sequence-Variant 374
[UniProt10]
Alternate sequence: I → M; UniProt: (in strain: B);
Transmembrane-Region 398 -> 418
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 446 -> 466
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
Transmembrane-Region 475 -> 495
[UniProt10a]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Units:

Notes:

History:
10/20/97 Gene b0040 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG11561; confirmed by SwissProt match.


References

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Buchet98: Buchet A, Eichler K, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1998). "Regulation of the carnitine pathway in Escherichia coli: investigation of the cai-fix divergent promoter region." J Bacteriol 1998;180(10);2599-608. PMID: 9573142

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Eichler94: Eichler K, Bourgis F, Buchet A, Kleber HP, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1994). "Molecular characterization of the cai operon necessary for carnitine metabolism in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 1994;13(5);775-86. PMID: 7815937

Eichler96: Eichler K, Buchet A, Lemke R, Kleber HP, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1996). "Identification and characterization of the caiF gene encoding a potential transcriptional activator of carnitine metabolism in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1996;178(5);1248-57. PMID: 8631699

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Jung02: Jung H, Buchholz M, Clausen J, Nietschke M, Revermann A, Schmid R, Jung K (2002). "CaiT of Escherichia coli, a new transporter catalyzing L-carnitine/gamma -butyrobetaine exchange." J Biol Chem 277(42);39251-8. PMID: 12163501

UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-11 released on 2010-11-02 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt10a: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA12: UniProt-GOA (2012). "Gene Ontology annotation based on UniPathway vocabulary mapping."

Vinothkumar06: Vinothkumar KR, Raunser S, Jung H, Kuhlbrandt W (2006). "Oligomeric structure of the carnitine transporter CaiT from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 281(8);4795-801. PMID: 16365043

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Beisel12: Beisel CL, Updegrove TB, Janson BJ, Storz G (2012). "Multiple factors dictate target selection by Hfq-binding small RNAs." EMBO J 31(8);1961-74. PMID: 22388518

Buchet99: Buchet A, Nasser W, Eichler K, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1999). "Positive co-regulation of the Escherichia coli carnitine pathway cai and fix operons by CRP and the CaiF activator." Mol Microbiol 1999;34(3);562-75. PMID: 10564497

Constantinidou06: Constantinidou C, Hobman JL, Griffiths L, Patel MD, Penn CW, Cole JA, Overton TW (2006). "A reassessment of the FNR regulon and transcriptomic analysis of the effects of nitrate, nitrite, NarXL, and NarQP as Escherichia coli K12 adapts from aerobic to anaerobic growth." J Biol Chem 281(8);4802-15. PMID: 16377617

Liu04a: Liu X, De Wulf P (2004). "Probing the ArcA-P modulon of Escherichia coli by whole genome transcriptional analysis and sequence recognition profiling." J Biol Chem 279(13);12588-97. PMID: 14711822

Salmon03: Salmon K, Hung SP, Mekjian K, Baldi P, Hatfield GW, Gunsalus RP (2003). "Global gene expression profiling in Escherichia coli K12. The effects of oxygen availability and FNR." J Biol Chem 278(32);29837-55. PMID: 12754220


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Tue Nov 25, 2014, biocyc14.