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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Transporter: β-glucoside PTS permease BglF / BglG kinase / BglG phosphatase (cryptic)



Gene: bglF Accession Numbers: EG10115 (EcoCyc), b3722, ECK3715

Synonyms: bglS, EIIbgl, Enzyme IIbgl

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Subunit composition of β-glucoside PTS permease BglF / BglG kinase / BglG phosphatase (cryptic) = [BglF]2

Alternative forms of β-glucoside PTS permease BglF / BglG kinase / BglG phosphatase (cryptic): β-glucoside PTS permease BglF - cys24 phosphorylated (cryptic) (summary available)

Summary:
BglF belongs to the functional superfamily of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent, sugar transporting phosphotransferase system (PTSsugar). The PTSsugar transports and simultaneously phosphorylates its sugar sustrates in a process known as group translocation (reviewed in [Postma93].

When activated (see below) bglF encodes an Enzyme IIBgl complex which possesses three domains (IIB-IIC-IIA) in a single polypeptide chain. On the basis of sequence similarity BglF belongs to the glucose class of PTS Enzyme IIs [Postma93] The hydrophilic IIB and IIA domains are localized to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and contain the active phosphorylation sites - histidine residue 547 in the IIA domain and cystine residue 24 in the IIB domain [Bramley87, Schnetz90]. The hydrophobic IIC domain contains eight transmembrane regions and likely forms the sugar translocation channel [YagurKroll05]. Upon activation the aromatic β-glucoside PTS transporter takes up exogenous aryl- and alkyl-β-glucosides (salicin, arbutin and methyl-β-glucoside) releasing the phosphate esters into the cell cytoplasm [Schnetz87, Schnetz90]. Upon activation BglF can also transport and phosphorylate glucose [Schnetz90]. BglF is a member of the PTS Glucose-Glucoside family of transporters [Saier14].

The bgl operon contains the bglG gene encoding a bgl operon-specific antiterminator, the blgF gene encoding the Enzyme IIBgl and the bglB gene encoding a phospho-β-glucosidase that hydrolyzes the aglycone from the glycoside phosphate ester [Schnetz87].

The bgl operon is silent in wild type E. coli K-12 due to the interaction of sequences upstream and downstream of the promoter [Schnetz95]. It is activated by the insertion of an IS element into the region upstream of the operon in some E. coli isolates [Schnetz92, Reynolds81] as well as by point mutations within the CAP binding site and gyrA or gyrB mutations [Reynolds86]. FIS helps to silence bgl by blocking activation by CAP [Caramel00]. The bgl operon is also activated in hns mutants [Kawula94], by increased expression of bglJ [Giel96] or leuO [Ueguchi98], and by the Lac and λ repressors [Caramel98]. The bgl operon is activated in E. coli infections of mouse liver [Khan98]. Activation of the bgl operon cannot occur in cells depleted of the histone-like proteins, HU or IHF [Yasuzawa92]. The operon is subject to positive control by the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) [Reynolds86].

In addition to its role in β-glucoside transport and phosphorylation, BglF also functions as a BglG kinase and phosphatase. BglF can reversibly phosphorylate the transcriptional antiterminator BglG according to β-glucoside availability. BglF catalyses the reversible phosphorylation of BglG both in vitro and in vivo. In the absence of β-glucosides BglG is recruited to the cell membrane and phosphorylated by BglF while the reverse process takes place in the presence of β-glucosides. The reversible phosphorylation catalysed by BglF triggers BglG monomer/dimer transition [AmsterChoder89, AmsterChoder90, Schnetz90a, AmsterChoder92, Lopian03]. Cysteine residue 24 is the site of phosphotransfer to and from BglG [Chen97a]. BglF phosphorylates histidine residue 101 in the PRD1 (PTS regulation domain) of BglG [Gorke03].

BglF exists as a dimer [Chen98]. The IIC domain and in particular, a region between transmembrane VI and transmembrane VII, has been implicated in forming the sugar translocation pathway [YagurKroll09]. Its similarity to EIIGlc allows EIIBgl to substitute for IIAGlc [Vogler88]. Enzyme IIAGlc has been shown to interact with EIIBgl and may contribute to β-glucoside transport and repression of BglG antitermination [Schnetz90a, Gulati00].

An activated bgl operon provides a growth advantage in stationary phase cultures of strains with rpoS819 alleles [Madan05].

Crypticity of this and other E. coli β-glucoside metabolic operons presumably serves as a protective device against toxic β-glucosides found in nature.

Review: [AmsterChoder93, AmsterChoder05]

Citations: [Prasad74, Defez81, Bramley87a, Mahadevan87, Mahadevan87a, Singh95, Schnetz96, Sonden96, Ueguchi96, Mukerji97, Chen97b, AmsterChoder97, Hall98, Free98, Chen98a, Chen99b, Ohta99, Manna01, Free01, Chen01d, Dole02, Moorthy02, Schnetz02, Baglioni03, Fux03, Dole04, Dole04a, Fux04, Madhusudan05, Chen00b, MondererRothkof07]

Gene Citations: [Schaefler67, Schaefler67a, Moorthy02]

Locations: inner membrane

Map Position: [3,901,743 <- 3,903,620] (84.1 centisomes)
Length: 1878 bp / 625 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 66.483 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0012171 , CGSC:18502 , DIP:DIP-9215N , EchoBASE:EB0113 , EcoGene:EG10115 , EcoliWiki:b3722 , ModBase:P08722 , OU-Microarray:b3722 , PortEco:bglF , PR:PRO_000022215 , Pride:P08722 , Protein Model Portal:P08722 , RefSeq:NP_418178 , RegulonDB:EG10115 , SMR:P08722 , String:511145.b3722 , Swiss-Model:P08722 , UniProt:P08722

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001127 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001996 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003352 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004719 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011055 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011297 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011535 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013013 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018113 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00358 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00367 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02378 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00371 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS01035 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51093 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51098 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51103

In Paralogous Gene Group: 177 (2 members) , 417 (2 members)

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
BglG + BglF-Pcys24 = BglG-Phis101 + BglF

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0008643 - carbohydrate transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0009401 - phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0016310 - phosphorylation Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0034219 - carbohydrate transmembrane transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, GOA01]
Molecular Function: GO:0008982 - protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-sugar phosphotransferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, GOA01]
GO:0016301 - kinase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0016740 - transferase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, GOA01, DiazMejia09, Daley05]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
information transfer protein related posttranslational modification
metabolism carbon utilization carbon compounds
regulation type of regulation posttranscriptional covalent modification, demodification, maturation
transport Group Translocators Phosphotransferase Systems (PEP-dependent PTS)

Essentiality data for bglF knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]

Credits:
Last-Curated ? 31-Mar-2014 by Mackie A , Macquarie University


Enzymatic reaction of: transport and phosphorylation of methyl β-D-glucoside (β-glucoside PTS permease BglF / BglG kinase / BglG phosphatase (cryptic))

Note: The enzyme may catalyze this reaction in vitro, but this reaction is not considered to be physiologically relevant.


Enzymatic reaction of: transport and phosphorylation of arbutin (β-glucoside PTS permease BglF / BglG kinase / BglG phosphatase (cryptic))

Note: The enzyme may catalyze this reaction in vitro, but this reaction is not considered to be physiologically relevant.


Enzymatic reaction of: transport and phosphorylation of salicin (β-glucoside PTS permease BglF / BglG kinase / BglG phosphatase (cryptic))

Note: The enzyme may catalyze this reaction in vitro, but this reaction is not considered to be physiologically relevant.


Enzymatic reaction of: transport and phosphorylation of D-glucose (β-glucoside PTS permease BglF / BglG kinase / BglG phosphatase (cryptic))

Note: The enzyme may catalyze this reaction in vitro, but this reaction is not considered to be physiologically relevant.


Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment State
Conserved-Region 1 -> 84
[UniProt09]
UniProt: PTS EIIB type-1;
 
Active-Site 24
[UniProt14]
UniProt: Phosphocysteine intermediate; for EIIB activity; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity.
 
Phosphocysteine-Modification 24
[UniProt10, Chen97a]
UniProt: Phosphocysteine intermediate; for EIIB activity; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
Unmodified
Transmembrane-Region 100 -> 120
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
 
Conserved-Region 102 -> 465
[UniProt09]
UniProt: PTS EIIC type-1;
 
Transmembrane-Region 141 -> 161
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
 
Transmembrane-Region 167 -> 187
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
 
Transmembrane-Region 203 -> 223
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
 
Transmembrane-Region 245 -> 265
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
 
Transmembrane-Region 285 -> 305
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
 
Transmembrane-Region 325 -> 345
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
 
Transmembrane-Region 354 -> 374
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
 
Transmembrane-Region 381 -> 401
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
 
Transmembrane-Region 404 -> 424
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
 
Transmembrane-Region 432 -> 452
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Helical;; Non-Experimental Qualifier: potential;
 
Conserved-Region 495 -> 599
[UniProt09]
UniProt: PTS EIIA type-1;
 
Active-Site 547
[UniProt10]
UniProt: Tele-phosphohistidine intermediate; for EIIA activity; Non-Experimental Qualifier: by similarity;
 


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Units:

Notes:

History:
10/20/97 Gene b3722 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10115; confirmed by SwissProt match.


References

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AmsterChoder89: Amster-Choder O, Houman F, Wright A (1989). "Protein phosphorylation regulates transcription of the beta-glucoside utilization operon in E. coli." Cell 1989;58(5);847-55. PMID: 2673534

AmsterChoder90: Amster-Choder O, Wright A (1990). "Regulation of activity of a transcriptional anti-terminator in E. coli by phosphorylation in vivo." Science 249(4968);540-2. PMID: 2200123

AmsterChoder92: Amster-Choder O, Wright A (1992). "Modulation of the dimerization of a transcriptional antiterminator protein by phosphorylation." Science 257(5075);1395-8. PMID: 1382312

AmsterChoder93: Amster-Choder O, Wright A (1993). "Transcriptional regulation of the bgl operon of Escherichia coli involves phosphotransferase system-mediated phosphorylation of a transcriptional antiterminator." J Cell Biochem 51(1);83-90. PMID: 7679391

AmsterChoder97: Amster-Choder O, Wright A (1997). "BglG, the response regulator of the Escherichia coli bgl operon, is phosphorylated on a histidine residue." J Bacteriol 179(17);5621-4. PMID: 9287026

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Baglioni03: Baglioni P, Bini L, Liberatori S, Pallini V, Marri L (2003). "Proteome analysis of Escherichia coli W3110 expressing an heterologous sigma factor." Proteomics 3(6);1060-5. PMID: 12833530

Bramley87: Bramley HF, Kornberg HL (1987). "Sequence homologies between proteins of bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems: identification of possible phosphate-carrying histidine residues." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84(14);4777-80. PMID: 3299373

Bramley87a: Bramley HF, Kornberg HL (1987). "Nucleotide sequence of bglC, the gene specifying enzymeIIbgl of the PEP:sugar phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli K12, and overexpression of the gene product." J Gen Microbiol 133(3);563-73. PMID: 3309161

Caramel00: Caramel A, Schnetz K (2000). "Antagonistic control of the Escherichia coli bgl promoter by FIS and CAP in vitro." Mol Microbiol 36(1);85-92. PMID: 10760165

Caramel98: Caramel A, Schnetz K (1998). "Lac and lambda repressors relieve silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl promoter. Activation by alteration of a repressing nucleoprotein complex." J Mol Biol 284(4);875-83. PMID: 9837711

Chen00b: Chen Q, Postma PW, Amster-Choder O (2000). "Dephosphorylation of the Escherichia coli transcriptional antiterminator BglG by the sugar sensor BglF is the reversal of its phosphorylation." J Bacteriol 182(7);2033-6. PMID: 10715013

Chen01d: Chen Q, Nussbaum-Shochat A, Amster-Choder O (2001). "A novel sugar-stimulated covalent switch in a sugar sensor." J Biol Chem 276(48);44751-6. PMID: 11579106

Chen97a: Chen Q, Arents JC, Bader R, Postma PW, Amster-Choder O (1997). "BglF, the sensor of the E. coli bgl system, uses the same site to phosphorylate both a sugar and a regulatory protein." EMBO J 16(15);4617-27. PMID: 9303306

Chen97b: Chen Q, Engelberg-Kulka H, Amster-Choder O (1997). "The localization of the phosphorylation site of BglG, the response regulator of the Escherichia coli bgl sensory system." J Biol Chem 272(28);17263-8. PMID: 9211862

Chen98: Chen Q, Amster-Choder O (1998). "BglF, the sensor of the bgl system and the beta-glucosides permease of Escherichia coli: evidence for dimerization and intersubunit phosphotransfer." Biochemistry 37(24);8714-23. PMID: 9628733

Chen98a: Chen Q, Amster-Choder O (1998). "The different functions of BglF, the E. coli beta-glucoside permease and sensor of the bgl system, have different structural requirements." Biochemistry 37(48);17040-7. PMID: 9836599

Chen99b: Chen Q, Amster-Choder O (1999). "BglF, the Escherichia coli beta-glucoside permease and sensor of the bgl system: domain requirements of the different catalytic activities." J Bacteriol 181(2);462-8. PMID: 9882659

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

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DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Dole02: Dole S, Kuhn S, Schnetz K (2002). "Post-transcriptional enhancement of Escherichia coli bgl operon silencing by limitation of BglG-mediated antitermination at low transcription rates." Mol Microbiol 43(1);217-26. PMID: 11849549

Dole04: Dole S, Nagarajavel V, Schnetz K (2004). "The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS represses the Escherichia coli bgl operon downstream of the promoter." Mol Microbiol 52(2);589-600. PMID: 15066043

Dole04a: Dole S, Klingen Y, Nagarajavel V, Schnetz K (2004). "The protease Lon and the RNA-binding protein Hfq reduce silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl operon by H-NS." J Bacteriol 186(9);2708-16. PMID: 15090512

Free01: Free A, Porter ME, Deighan P, Dorman CJ (2001). "Requirement for the molecular adapter function of StpA at the Escherichia coli bgl promoter depends upon the level of truncated H-NS protein." Mol Microbiol 42(4);903-17. PMID: 11737635

Free98: Free A, Williams RM, Dorman CJ (1998). "The StpA protein functions as a molecular adapter to mediate repression of the bgl operon by truncated H-NS in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 180(4);994-7. PMID: 9473058

Fux03: Fux L, Nussbaum-Shochat A, Amster-Choder O (2003). "A fraction of the BglG transcriptional antiterminator from Escherichia coli exists as a compact monomer." J Biol Chem 278(51);50978-84. PMID: 14514681

Fux04: Fux L, Nussbaum-Shochat A, Lopian L, Amster-Choder O (2004). "Modulation of monomer conformation of the BglG transcriptional antiterminator from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 186(20);6775-81. PMID: 15466029

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

Giel96: Giel M, Desnoyer M, Lopilato J (1996). "A mutation in a new gene, bglJ, activates the bgl operon in Escherichia coli K-12." Genetics 143(2);627-35. PMID: 8725214

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA01a: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

Gorke03: Gorke B (2003). "Regulation of the Escherichia coli antiterminator protein BglG by phosphorylation at multiple sites and evidence for transfer of phosphoryl groups between monomers." J Biol Chem 278(47);46219-29. PMID: 12963714

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Hall98: Hall BG (1998). "Activation of the bgl operon by adaptive mutation." Mol Biol Evol 15(1);1-5. PMID: 9491599

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Khan98: Khan MA, Isaacson RE (1998). "In vivo expression of the beta-glucoside (bgl) operon of Escherichia coli occurs in mouse liver." J Bacteriol 180(17);4746-9. PMID: 9721321

Lopian03: Lopian L, Nussbaum-Shochat A, O'Day-Kerstein K, Wright A, Amster-Choder O (2003). "The BglF sensor recruits the BglG transcription regulator to the membrane and releases it on stimulation." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(12);7099-104. PMID: 12771379

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Madhusudan05: Madhusudan S, Paukner A, Klingen Y, Schnetz K (2005). "Independent regulation of H-NS-mediated silencing of the bgl operon at two levels: upstream by BglJ and LeuO and downstream by DnaKJ." Microbiology 151(Pt 10);3349-59. PMID: 16207917

Mahadevan87: Mahadevan S, Reynolds AE, Wright A (1987). "Positive and negative regulation of the bgl operon in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 169(6);2570-8. PMID: 3294798

Mahadevan87a: Mahadevan S, Wright A (1987). "A bacterial gene involved in transcription antitermination: regulation at a rho-independent terminator in the bgl operon of E. coli." Cell 50(3);485-94. PMID: 3301003

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MondererRothkof07: Monderer-Rothkoff G, Amster-Choder O (2007). "Genetic dissection of the divergent activities of the multifunctional membrane sensor BglF." J Bacteriol 189(23);8601-15. PMID: 17905978

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Schaefler67: Schaefler S, Maas WK (1967). "Inducible system for the utilization of beta-glucosides in Escherichia coli. II. Description of mutant types and genetic analysis." J Bacteriol 93(1);264-72. PMID: 5335893

Schaefler67a: Schaefler S (1967). "Inducible system for the utilization of beta-glucosides in Escherichia coli. I. Active transport and utilization of beta-glucosides." J Bacteriol 93(1);254-63. PMID: 5335892

Schnetz02: Schnetz K (2002). "Silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl operon by RpoS requires Crl." Microbiology 148(Pt 8);2573-8. PMID: 12177351

Schnetz87: Schnetz K, Toloczyki C, Rak B (1987). "Beta-glucoside (bgl) operon of Escherichia coli K-12: nucleotide sequence, genetic organization, and possible evolutionary relationship to regulatory components of two Bacillus subtilis genes." J Bacteriol 169(6);2579-90. PMID: 3034860

Schnetz90: Schnetz K, Sutrina SL, Saier MH, Rak B (1990). "Identification of catalytic residues in the beta-glucoside permease of Escherichia coli by site-specific mutagenesis and demonstration of interdomain cross-reactivity between the beta-glucoside and glucose systems." J Biol Chem 265(23);13464-71. PMID: 2199437

Schnetz90a: Schnetz K, Rak B (1990). "Beta-glucoside permease represses the bgl operon of Escherichia coli by phosphorylation of the antiterminator protein and also interacts with glucose-specific enzyme III, the key element in catabolite control." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87(13);5074-8. PMID: 2195546

Schnetz92: Schnetz K, Rak B (1992). "IS5: a mobile enhancer of transcription in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992;89(4);1244-8. PMID: 1311089

Schnetz95: Schnetz K (1995). "Silencing of Escherichia coli bgl promoter by flanking sequence elements." EMBO J 14(11);2545-50. PMID: 7781607

Schnetz96: Schnetz K, Wang JC (1996). "Silencing of the Escherichia coli bgl promoter: effects of template supercoiling and cell extracts on promoter activity in vitro." Nucleic Acids Res 24(12);2422-8. PMID: 8710516

Singh95: Singh J, Mukerji M, Mahadevan S (1995). "Transcriptional activation of the Escherichia coli bgl operon: negative regulation by DNA structural elements near the promoter." Mol Microbiol 17(6);1085-92. PMID: 8594328

Sonden96: Sonden B, Uhlin BE (1996). "Coordinated and differential expression of histone-like proteins in Escherichia coli: regulation and function of the H-NS analog StpA." EMBO J 1996;15(18);4970-80. PMID: 8890170

Ueguchi96: Ueguchi C, Suzuki T, Yoshida T, Tanaka K, Mizuno T (1996). "Systematic mutational analysis revealing the functional domain organization of Escherichia coli nucleoid protein H-NS." J Mol Biol 1996;263(2);149-62. PMID: 8913298

Ueguchi98: Ueguchi C, Ohta T, Seto C, Suzuki T, Mizuno T (1998). "The leuO gene product has a latent ability to relieve bgl silencing in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 180(1);190-3. PMID: 9422614

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UniProt10: UniProt Consortium (2010). "UniProt version 2010-07 released on 2010-06-15 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt14: UniProt Consortium (2014). "UniProt version 2014-01 released on 2014-01-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

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YagurKroll09: Yagur-Kroll S, Ido A, Amster-Choder O (2009). "Spatial arrangement of the beta-glucoside transporter from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 191(9);3086-94. PMID: 19251853

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Other References Related to Gene Regulation

BenZeev05: Ben-Zeev E, Fux L, Amster-Choder O, Eisenstein M (2005). "Experimental and computational characterization of the dimerization of the PTS-regulation domains of BglG from Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 347(4);693-706. PMID: 15769463

CastanieCornet10: Castanie-Cornet MP, Cam K, Bastiat B, Cros A, Bordes P, Gutierrez C (2010). "Acid stress response in Escherichia coli: mechanism of regulation of gadA transcription by RcsB and GadE." Nucleic Acids Res 38(11);3546-54. PMID: 20189963

Gorke99: Gorke B, Rak B (1999). "Catabolite control of Escherichia coli regulatory protein BglG activity by antagonistically acting phosphorylations." EMBO J 18(12);3370-9. PMID: 10369677

Gueune08: Gueune H, Durand MJ, Thouand G, DuBow MS (2008). "The ygaVP genes of Escherichia coli form a tributyltin-inducible operon." Appl Environ Microbiol 74(6);1954-8. PMID: 18245262

Gulati01: Gulati A, Mahadevan S (2001). "The Escherichia coli antiterminator protein BglG stabilizes the 5'region of the bgl mRNA." J Biosci 26(2);193-203. PMID: 11426055

Houman90: Houman F, Diaz-Torres MR, Wright A (1990). "Transcriptional antitermination in the bgl operon of E. coli is modulated by a specific RNA binding protein." Cell 62(6);1153-63. PMID: 1698125

Kelm97: Kelm O, Kiecker C, Geider K, Bernhard F (1997). "Interaction of the regulator proteins RcsA and RcsB with the promoter of the operon for amylovoran biosynthesis in Erwinia amylovora." Mol Gen Genet 256(1);72-83. PMID: 9341681

Madan08a: Madan R, Moorthy S, Mahadevan S (2008). "Enhanced expression of the bgl operon of Escherichia coli in the stationary phase." FEMS Microbiol Lett 288(1);131-9. PMID: 18793199

NussbaumShochat99: Nussbaum-Shochat A, Amster-Choder O (1999). "BglG, the transcriptional antiterminator of the bgl system, interacts with the beta' subunit of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(8);4336-41. PMID: 10200263

Salscheider14: Salscheider SL, Jahn A, Schnetz K (2014). "Transcriptional regulation by BglJ-RcsB, a pleiotropic heteromeric activator in Escherichia coli." Nucleic Acids Res 42(5);2999-3008. PMID: 24335284

Schnetz88: Schnetz K, Rak B (1988). "Regulation of the bgl operon of Escherichia coli by transcriptional antitermination." EMBO J 7(10);3271-7. PMID: 2846278

Tsui94: Tsui HC, Leung HC, Winkler ME (1994). "Characterization of broadly pleiotropic phenotypes caused by an hfq insertion mutation in Escherichia coli K-12." Mol Microbiol 13(1);35-49. PMID: 7984093

Venkatesh10: Venkatesh GR, Kembou Koungni FC, Paukner A, Stratmann T, Blissenbach B, Schnetz K (2010). "BglJ-RcsB heterodimers relieve repression of the Escherichia coli bgl operon by H-NS." J Bacteriol 192(24);6456-64. PMID: 20952573

Zheng04: Zheng D, Constantinidou C, Hobman JL, Minchin SD (2004). "Identification of the CRP regulon using in vitro and in vivo transcriptional profiling." Nucleic Acids Res 32(19);5874-93. PMID: 15520470


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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