Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Compound: diacetyl

Synonyms: 2,3-butanedione, biacetyl, dimethylglyoxal, 2,3-diketobutane, 2,3-dioxobutane, butadione, dimethyl diketone, butanedione

Superclasses: an aldehyde or ketonea ketonea methyl ketone

Summary from MetaCyc:
Diacetyl is an important flavor component in many fermented foods and beverages, including dairy and dairy-like products, beer and wine [Bartowsky04]. It imparts a buttery aroma and flavour, and has an important stylistic role in wine. In beer, diacetyl is considered a spoilage factor. During beer maturation, 2-acetolactate is slowly converted to diacetyl by a chemical, non-enzymatic process, and the diacetyl is converted to acetoin by diacetyl reductase of the yeast cells. for this purpose, purified enzyme is sometimes added to the wort [Diderichsen90].

Chemical Formula: C4H6O2

Molecular Weight: 86.09 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 86.0367794368 Daltons

diacetyl compound structure


InChI: InChI=1S/C4H6O2/c1-3(5)4(2)6/h1-2H3


Unification Links: CAS:431-03-8, ChEBI:16583, ChemSpider:630, HMDB:HMDB03407, KEGG:C00741, PubChem:650

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -61.64

Reactions known to produce the compound:

Not in pathways:
(S)-2-acetolactate + an oxidized unknown electron acceptor + H+diacetyl + CO2 + an reduced unknown electron acceptor

Not in pathways:
a 3-oxoacid + H+a methyl ketone + CO2

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
acetoin + NADP+ = diacetyl + NADPH + H+

Enzymes activated by diacetyl, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: pyruvate oxidase [Koland82]

Enzymes inhibited by diacetyl, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferase [Green84], 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase [Mukherjee92], threonine dehydrogenase [Epperly89]

In Growth Media: PMA carbon source test + diacetyl


Bartowsky04: Bartowsky EJ, Henschke PA (2004). "The 'buttery' attribute of wine--diacetyl--desirability, spoilage and beyond." Int J Food Microbiol 96(3);235-52. PMID: 15454314

Diderichsen90: Diderichsen B, Wedsted U, Hedegaard L, Jensen BR, Sjoholm C (1990). "Cloning of aldB, which encodes alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase, an exoenzyme from Bacillus brevis." J Bacteriol 172(8);4315-21. PMID: 2198252

Epperly89: Epperly BR, Dekker EE (1989). "Inactivation of Escherichia coli L-threonine dehydrogenase by 2,3-butanedione. Evidence for a catalytically essential arginine residue." J Biol Chem 1989;264(31);18296-301. PMID: 2681195

Green84: Green PR, Bell RM (1984). "The triose-phosphate site of homogeneous reconstituted sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase of Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1984;795(2);348-55. PMID: 6383480

Koland82: Koland JG, O'Brien TA, Gennis RB (1982). "Role of arginine in the binding of thiamin pyrophosphate to Escherichia coli pyruvate oxidase." Biochemistry 21(11);2656-600. PMID: 7046791

Mukherjee92: Mukherjee JJ, Dekker EE (1992). "Inactivation of Escherichia coli 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase by phenylglyoxal and identification of an active-site arginine peptide." Arch Biochem Biophys 299(1);147-53. PMID: 1444446

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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