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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Compound: Co2+

Synonyms: Co+2, Co++, cobalt ion

Superclasses: an iona cationan inorganic cationa divalent inorganic cation
an ionan inorganic ionan inorganic cationa divalent inorganic cation

Component of:
cobalt chloride

Chemical Formula: Co

Molecular Weight: 58.93 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 58.9332002 Daltons

SMILES: [Co++]

InChI: InChI=1S/Co/q+2


Unification Links: CAS:22541-53-3, ChEBI:48828, ChemSpider:94546, HMDB:HMDB00608, IAF1260:34141, KEGG:C00175, PubChem:104729

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): 0.0

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
RcnR + Co2+ = RcnR-Co2+

In Transport reactions:
an ion[periplasm]an ion[extracellular space]

Enzymes activated by Co2+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase [Chen09a, Henrich93], UDP-sugar hydrolase [Glaser67], 5'-ribonucleotidase [McMillen03], adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [Lu07], 3'-nucleotidase [Anraku64], 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase [Wu03, Comment 1], acetylornithine deacetylase [JavidMajd00, Comment 2], argininosuccinate lyase, polyphosphate kinase [Haeusler92, Comment 3], nonspecific dipeptidase [Schroeder94], 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase [Anraku64]

Enzymes inhibited by Co2+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase [Qian14], GTPase [Sydor13], glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Hayzer82], ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase [Eliasson92], mannose isomerase [Itoh08], sulfite reductase, ubiquinol oxidase (H+-transporting) [Kita84], methylglyoxal reductase (NADPH-dependent) [Saikusa87], hydrogen:menaquinone oxidoreductase [Ballantine86], tetrahydrodipicolinate succinylase [Simms84], D-glucarate dehydratase [Comment 4], taurine dioxygenase [Eichhorn97], D-aminopropanol dehydrogenase [Kelley84, Campbell78]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: dUMP phosphohydrolase, dAMP phosphohydrolase, phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase, diacylglycerol kinase, tRNA nucleotidyltransferase, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase, allulose-6-phosphate 3-epimerase, deoxyribonucleoside 5'-monophosphate phosphatase, dCMP phosphohydrolase, isopentenyl-diphosphate:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase, dimethylallyl-diphosphate:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase, aminopeptidase, examinopeptidase, 3-dehydroquinate synthase, 3'-nucleotidase, 5'-nucleotidase, allantoinase, deoxyribonucleoside 5'-monophosphate phosphatase, RNase BN exoribonuclease, RNase T exonuclease, acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterase, N-succinyl-L-diaminopimelate desuccinylase

This compound has been characterized as an alternative cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: methionine adenosyltransferase, aspartate ammonia-lyase, 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-D-erythritol synthase, anthranilate synthase, adenylylsulfate kinase, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase, cytosine deaminase, NMN adenylyltransferase, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, phenylhydantoinase

This compound has been characterized as an alternative substrate of the following enzymes: Zn2+-exporting ATPase

In Growth Media: MOPS medium with 2% glycerol, MOPS medium with 2% glucose, MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose, MOPS medium base, Neidhardt EZ rich defined medium, LB enriched


Anraku64: Anraku Y (1964). "A new cyclic phosphodiesterase having a 3'-nucleotidase activity from Escherichia coli B. I. Purification and some properties of the enzyme." J Biol Chem 1964;239(10):3412-3419. PMID: 14245396

Ballantine86: Ballantine SP, Boxer DH (1986). "Isolation and characterisation of a soluble active fragment of hydrogenase isoenzyme 2 from the membranes of anaerobically grown Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 1986;156(2);277-84. PMID: 3516690

Blumenthal66: Blumenthal H "D-Glucarate Dehydrase." Meth Enz 1966;9:660-665.

Campbell78: Campbell RL, Swain RR, Dekker EE (1978). "Purification, separation, and characterization of two molecular forms of D-1-amino-2-propanol:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity from extracts of Escherichia coli K-12." J Biol Chem 253(20);7282-8. PMID: 359547

Chen09a: Chen HL, Chang CT, Lin LL, Li TY, Lo HF (2009). "The dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase of Escherichia coli novablue: overproduction and molecular characterization of the recombinant enzyme." World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 25(2);323-330.

Eichhorn97: Eichhorn E, van der Ploeg JR, Kertesz MA, Leisinger T (1997). "Characterization of alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent taurine dioxygenase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1997;272(37);23031-6. PMID: 9287300

Eliasson92: Eliasson R, Pontis E, Fontecave M, Gerez C, Harder J, Jornvall H, Krook M, Reichard P (1992). "Characterization of components of the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase system from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 267(35);25541-7. PMID: 1460049

Glaser67: Glaser L, Melo A, Paul R (1967). "Uridine diphosphate sugar hydrolase. Purification of enzyme and protein inhibitor." J Biol Chem 1967;242(8);1944-54. PMID: 5337593

Haeusler92: Haeusler PA, Dieter L, Rittle KJ, Shepler LS, Paszkowski AL, Moe OA (1992). "Catalytic properties of Escherichia coli polyphosphate kinase: an enzyme for ATP regeneration." Biotechnol Appl Biochem 1992;15(2);125-33. PMID: 1316760

Hayzer82: Hayzer DJ, Leisinger T (1982). "Proline biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Purification and characterisation of glutamate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase." Eur J Biochem 1982;121(3);561-5. PMID: 7035170

Henrich93: Henrich B, Becker S, Schroeder U, Plapp R (1993). "dcp gene of Escherichia coli: cloning, sequencing, transcript mapping, and characterization of the gene product." J Bacteriol 175(22);7290-300. PMID: 8226676

Itoh08: Itoh T, Mikami B, Hashimoto W, Murata K (2008). "Crystal structure of YihS in complex with D-mannose: structural annotation of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica yihS-encoded proteins to an aldose-ketose isomerase." J Mol Biol 377(5);1443-59. PMID: 18328504

JavidMajd00: Javid-Majd F, Blanchard JS (2000). "Mechanistic analysis of the argE-encoded N-acetylornithine deacetylase." Biochemistry 2000;39(6);1285-93. PMID: 10684608

Kelley84: Kelley JJ, Dekker EE (1984). "D-1-amino-2-propanol:NAD+ oxidoreductase. Purification and general properties of the large molecular form of the enzyme from Escherichia coli K12." J Biol Chem 1984;259(4);2124-9. PMID: 6365902

Kita84: Kita K, Konishi K, Anraku Y (1984). "Terminal oxidases of Escherichia coli aerobic respiratory chain. I. Purification and properties of cytochrome b562-o complex from cells in the early exponential phase of aerobic growth." J Biol Chem 1984;259(5);3368-74. PMID: 6365921

Lu07: Lu ZJ, Markham GD (2007). "Metal ion activation of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase reflects cation charge density." Biochemistry 46(27);8172-80. PMID: 17567041

McMillen03: McMillen L, Beacham IR, Burns DM (2003). "Cobalt activation of Escherichia coli 5'-nucleotidase is due to zinc ion displacement at only one of two metal-ion-binding sites." Biochem J 372(Pt 2);625-30. PMID: 12603203

Qian14: Qian J, Garrett TA, Raetz CR (2014). "In vitro assembly of the outer core of the lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium." Biochemistry 53(8);1250-62. PMID: 24479701

Ray80: Ray PH, Benedict CD (1980). "Purification and characterization of specific 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase from Escherichia coli B." J Bacteriol 1980;142(1);60-8. PMID: 6246070

Saikusa87: Saikusa T, Rhee H, Watanabe K, Murata K, Kimura A (1987). "Metabolism of 2-oxoaldehydes in bacteria: purification and characterization of methylglyoxal reductase from E. coli." Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 51(7): 1893-1899.

Schroeder94: Schroeder U, Henrich B, Fink J, Plapp R (1994). "Peptidase D of Escherichia coli K-12, a metallopeptidase of low substrate specificity." FEMS Microbiol Lett 123(1-2);153-9. PMID: 7988883

Simms84: Simms SA, Voige WH, Gilvarg C (1984). "Purification and characterization of succinyl-CoA: tetrahydrodipicolinate N-succinyltransferase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1984;259(5);2734-41. PMID: 6365916

Sydor13: Sydor AM, Jost M, Ryan KS, Turo KE, Douglas CD, Drennan CL, Zamble DB (2013). "Metal binding properties of Escherichia coli YjiA, a member of the metal homeostasis-associated COG0523 family of GTPases." Biochemistry 52(10);1788-1801. PMID: 24449932

Wu03: Wu J, Woodard RW (2003). "Escherichia coli YrbI is 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase." J Biol Chem 278(20);18117-23. PMID: 12639950

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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